Application Notebook February 2012

February 2012 | Volume 0, Issue 0
Atomic Spectroscopy
Building on more than 10 years of Micro-XRF experience, the Orbis spectrometer yields a system with excellent Micro-XRF capability while setting a new standard in analytical flexibility. The Orbis incorporates a unique motorized turret integrating video and X-ray optics allowing coaxial sample view and X-ray analysis. The turret can accommodate two additional collimators along with the X-ray optic for a total of three X-ray beam sizes to expand the Orbis analytical capabilities beyond traditional Micro-XRF analysis. Primary beam filters can be used with all spot sizes available on the turret to allow true XRF analytical capabilities in a micro-spot analysis. The working distance is increased to allow analysis over rougher sample topography without sacrificing signal intensity.
Cement is one of the most important materials in the construction industry. Traditionally, WDXRF spectrometers used in cement plants have been large, floor-standing models with substantial installation requirements and ownership expenses. This application note demonstrates the capabilities of the Rigaku Supermini — a new low-cost, benchtop wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer — for the rapid quantitative elemental analysis of cement raw meal.
Whether the goal is food safety, ensuring quality, or establishing provenance, measuring the trace element content of foods and beverages that we all consume is of paramount importance. While some elements are essential for our well being at low concentrations, others like lead and chromium are highly toxic and more still are being linked to viral, neurological, and other diseases. Food scares related to contamination or poor quality not only constitute a health risk, they also undermine consumer confidence. This can lead to lost earnings through reduced sales and loss of credibility through adverse publicity.
The Optima 8x00 ICP-OES series utilizes the new Flat Plate plasma technology that replaces the traditional helical coil design used since the inception of the inductively coupled plasma. The Flat Plate plasma technology, as seen in Figure 1, utilizes two flat induction plates to produce a plasma that is compact, dense, and robust. This plasma utilizes about half the argon required by previous helical coil designs while still delivering exceptional analytical performance.
In this study, apple juice samples are analyzed by IC–ICP–MS to determine the concentration of six arsenic species: the two inorganic, and highly toxic, species (As (V) and As [III]) and four organic species (arsenobetaine [AsB], arsenocholine [AsC], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]).
Current USP Method 231 "Heavy Metals" was introduced in 1905 for determining heavy metal impurities in pharmaceutical drug products. The procedures of the method have several limitations, which produce results that are nondiscriminatory, difficult to reproduce, and qualitative, or at best, semi-quantitative.
This technical brief compares imaging needs and how Moxtek is improving its products. It explains how competing technologies in LCoS projectors compare in terms of brightness, performance, durability and reliability.
Analysis of the temperature of the photosphere and determine the temperature by students using CCD spectrometers.
Molecular Spectroscopy
Increased capability for identifying genuine versus counterfeit materials is achieved by using dispersive 1064 nm Raman analyzers.
The exacting standards of quality and reliability of structured substrates in the semiconductor industry require in-depth knowledge concerning the interior structure of the devices. In this application note we present results of 3D confocal Raman imaging measurements for such characterizations.
Multiple reflection ATR is ideal for detecting miniscule levels of components in solutions, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Most multiple ATR accessories use ATR crystals which are susceptible to wear and damage. Diamond, although an excellent choice due to its refractive index, high degree of chemical inertness, and low coefficient of friction, is generally not used because of its expense and its strong lattice bands around 2200 cm-1.
Low concentration natural methanol exists in most alcoholic beverages and usually causes no immediate health threat. Nevertheless, it is possible to have natural occurring methanol in beverages with concentration as high as 18 g/L of ethanol; or equivalent to 0.72% methanol in 40% ethanol, in alcohol (1). Current EU regulation limits naturally occurring methanol to below 10 g/L of ethanol; or equivalent to 0.4% methanol in 40% ethanol.
FTIR spectroscopy has long been used for the analysis of art and historical objects in support of efforts to conserve, restore, and validate authenticity of these rare objects. The value of the technique for this application lies in its inherent sensitivity, specificity, and non-destructive capabilities.
The formation of organic silane-based thin films on silicon substrates provides a simple opportunity to introduce chemically well-defined thin films at the molecular scale (1).
Raman is a well-developed and implemented qualitative spectroscopic tool for molecular identification, but in recent years with the development of high resolution portable Raman spectrometers and cutting edge chemometric modeling, software has now enabled the use of Raman for highly precise quantitative measurements of mixtures and reactions.
The polyclonal IgG in this study is more thermally stable at neutral pH, (4.8 to 7.8) than it is at lower pH. The loss of thermal stability at lower pH is concomitant with a change in the pre-transition folded structure of the protein.
Infrared (IR) sampling techniques of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and transmission for polymer analysis are compared and contrasted. Using a real-world application, IR analysis of silane-grafted linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) pellets is presented to illustrate the benefit of IR film transmission sampling.
Pork fat was directly analyzed in this study with Bruker's FT-NIR system for iodine value (IV) with an accuracy expressed in RMSEP of 1.1 IV.
In the three decades since its discovery, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been used in numerous applications to increase signal intensity in Raman scattering experiments. The current study provides insight into the more practical aspects of enhanced Raman sampling for laboratory users. We describe how the signal enhancement from a surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) process improves the ability to discriminate between ink samples using principal component clustering.
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