David W. Ball

In the first installment of this series (1), I introduced the five fundamental symmetry elements that we consider for physical
objects. In the second installment (2), I discussed why these symmetry elements form mathematical groups. Here, we will extend
the group concept in terms that can be used more mathematically — ultimately, a form that can be used in spectroscopy.
Matrix Representations — Again
In the last column, I made the point that a symmetry operation can be represented by matrix multiplication. This is a point
worth making again, so here is a quick review. Consider the point (3, 4) in twodimensional space, as shown in Figure 1a.
If a reflection plane of symmetry σ were to cut the plane of the page coincident with the y axis, that point would be reflected to the point (3, 4). This is equivalent to performing the following matrix multiplication:
Figure 1

(You may want to review the procedures for performing matrix multiplication.) The 2 x 2 matrix in the equation above
is a matrix representation of σ, the reflection symmetry element.
Figure 1b shows that this concept is not limited to points, but to shapes as well: if every point on the shape in Figure 1b,
represented by (x, y), were operated on by the 2 x 2 matrix element representing σ, it would transfer every point to another point on the shape.
That is, the expression
holds for each and every point on the shape. Therefore, the shape has a reflection symmetry element. Furthermore, if this
equation were not true for every point on the shape, the shape would not have the symmetry element σ.
As was mentioned in the last installment, matrix multiplication is extendable to three dimensions and appropriate to all five
symmetry elements.