This installment, part II in a three-part series, was intended to dissect the basic technology choices for components of LIBS
hardware. There is not a perfect solution for all situations by any means, but there are excellent, and always improving,
options for these components. We hope that this provides a basis to compare and contrast the laser, spectrometer, and detector
choices such that when you are seeking a LIBS system solution from one of the manufacturers, you have a road map in mind.
The last installment of this series will cover LIBS spectral analysis and the basics of proceeding from a spectrum to a solution.
(1) S. Buckley, Spectroscopy
29(1), 22–29 (2014).
(2) J. Scaffaldi, S.M. Angel, and D. Cremers, Anal. Chem.
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(3) R. LeHarzic et al., Appl. Phys. Lett.
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26(2), 341–351 (2011).
(5) A. Elhassan, A. Giakoumaki, D. Anglos, G. Ingo, L. Robbiola, and M. Harith, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B
63, 504–511 (2008).
(6) D. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (88th ed.) (CRC, Boca Raton, Florida, 2007).
(7) Y. Zel'dovich and Y. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Dover, Mineola, New York, 2002).
Steve Buckley is a Director of Market Development at TSI Incorporated, which acquired the LIBS business of Photon Machines, Inc., in 2012.
Before cofounding Photon Machines, Steve was a tenured professor of engineering at the University of California at San Diego.
He has been working on research and practical issues surrounding the implementation of LIBS since 1998. He can be reached