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Spectroscopy instructs scientists, technicians, and laboratory managers in the efficient, productive use of spectroscopic instruments, and promotes the acceptance of spectroscopy as a practical analytical technology in industry and life science. We serve subscribers by publishing a highly focused editorial product that combines peer-reviewed scientific articles with practical, solutions-based information, helping them to become better spectroscopists whether they work in the laboratory, on the process line, or in the field.

Annual Salary Survey
2009 Salary Survey: Salaries and Stress on the Rise
LCGC assistant editor Megan Evans discusses this year's salaries and trends in employment for spectroscopists.
2008 Salary Survey: Salaries and Stress Shrink
Spectroscopy staff editor Brian Johnson discusses this year's salaries and trends in employment for spectroscopists.
2014 Spectroscopy Salary Survey
Our annual salary survey took a look at the employment markets faced by spectroscopists in 2014, and the results were surprising.
The 2004 Spectroscopy Survey of Salaries and Employment Issues
A Look at Spectroscopists' Incomes and Attitudes About Their Jobs
2007 Salary Survey
Staff editor Brian Johnson takes a look at this year's salaries and trends in employment for spectroscopists.
2006 Salary Survey: Salary Changes and Job Satisfaction in the Spectroscopy Community
This year's survey of salaries and job attitudes reveals that the market seems stable, but many spectroscopists are feeling the pressure of the economy at work.
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Application Notes - Atomic Spectroscopy
Ultrafine Grinding with Laboratory Ball Mills
Nanoparticles are produced by colloidal grinding, which involves dispersion of the particles in liquid to neutralize the surface charges. Factors such as energy input and the size reduction principle make ball mills the best choice for the production of nanoparticles.
PFA Cyclonic Spray Chamber for ICP-OES and ICP-MS
An inert cyclonic spray chamber manufactured from molded PFA for use in ICP-OES and ICP-MS instruments offers several design benefits, including enhanced sensitivity, improved draining, and increased wettability with an optional surface treatment.
Trace Elements in Aqueous Solution by EDXRF
Application Note # 1011 describes quantitative analysis of trace amounts of 12 elements using the benchtop Rigaku NEX CG spectrometer in conjunction with the patented UltraCarry® sample preparation technique.
Lanthanide Series Investigations with TSI LIBS Desktop Analyzer
The lanthanide series is a series of metallic elements, with atomic numbers 58 through 71, which are — in order of increasing atomic number — cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium.
Analysis of Ultra-Low Sulfur in Automotive Fuels According to ASTM D2622-10 by Sulfur Analyzer Micro-Z ULS
The permitted sulfur limit in fuel oils has been decreased to 10 ppm in many regions.
Simultaneous Single Reaction Chamber Microwave Digestion of Mixed-Consumer Products
Milestone's UltraWAVE microwave digestion system with single reaction chamber (SRC) technology, enables the simultaneous digestion of up of to 22 different sample types and chemistries at temperatures and pressures as high as 300 ?C and 199 bar.
Savillex PFA Cyclonic Spray Chamber for ICP-OES and ICP-MS
The new Savillex PFA Cyclonic Spray Chamber is the first inert chamber with the traditional shape of a glass cyclonic, and is also the first translucent inert chamber.
Using the Orbis Micro-XRF Spectrometer to Study the Microstructure of Ancient Roman Seawater Concrete
Ancient Roman builders designed maritime concrete harbor structures to remain intact in the aggressive seawater environment for very long periods of time.
Copper Concentrate Analysis by Pressed Powder Method
As the quality of Cu ore deposits has decreased, the demand for reliable analysis has increased. Rigaku application note XRF 1041 describes the analysis of copper ore concentrate using the Rigaku Supermini200 high-power benchtop sequential WDXRF spectrometer. Analysis of copper sulfide ore, a major source of copper and other Cu concentrates, can reveal the presence of not only harmful elements, such as arsenic, but also elements more valuable than copper, including silver or gold. The results show how a benchtop spectrometer can be a powerful tool for ore and concentrate analysis for both process control and screening.
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Application Notes - General
Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics
Even though no current electronics is fast enough to measure femtosecond lasers, an estimation of the pulse duration, peak wavelength, and relative intensity is possible.
Pump Down and Vent Rate Tolerances of Moxtek Windows
Moxtek makes ultra-thin polymer X-ray windows that are often used in SEM and TEM microanalysis detectors.
Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots
Fluorescence spectroscopy is a useful tool for quantum dots, nanostructures, and material science.
Arsenic in Organic Brown Rice Syrup
This paper describes the analysis of organic brown rice samples (OBRS) for their total arsenic content using ICP-MS, and their species concentrations by IC-ICP-MS.
Advantages of TE Cooling for Raman and Fluorescence
In this application note we demonstrate the benefits of a TE cooled spectrometer by comparing the technology with a noncooled device, configured for both fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy.
Wire Grid Polarizer – 10% Improvement in PBS Efficiency
This technical brief compares imaging needs and how Moxtek is improving its products. It explains how competing technologies in LCoS projectors compare in terms of brightness, performance, durability and reliability.
Observing the Solar Spectrum at House of Science
Analysis of the temperature of the photosphere and determine the temperature by students using CCD spectrometers.
Design Considerations for the Q Series
The Q Series is a line of step-up DC to high voltage DC converters in an ultra-miniature 0.125 cubic inch package. Models are available covering the range of 0 to +/-100 volts through +/-5,000 volts, with an input of 0 to 5 volts or 0 to 12 volts, depending on model number.
Corrosion Resistance of DuraBeryllium® Plus X-ray Windows
DuraBeryllium® Plus windows are Moxtek’s most robust coated beryllium X-ray window. This window has an additional thin coating of polymer “Plus” applied to the already robust DuraBeryllium window. The Plus layer is more resistant to water and other harsh chemicals.
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Application Notes - Mass Spectrometry
Programmable-Gain Transimpedance Amplifiers Maximize Dynamic Range in Spectroscopy Systems
This article uses a real-world example to show the benefits and challenges of implementing a single-stage programmable-gain TIA to minimize noise while maintaining high bandwidth and high accuracy.
Analysis of 258 Pesticides in Vegetable Matrix using Triple Quadrupole GC-MS/MS
There are nearly one thousand pesticides used in modern agricultural practice, and the residues of pesticides in the food from plant origins have been an increasing concern for consumers worldwide. Monitoring programs based analytical methodologies are established to ensure that the pesticide levels in plant foods are in compliance with national and international laws. However, the diversity of pesticides and complexity of food sample matrix present ongoing challenges for analytical chemists to meet the increasingly stringent requirements for sensitivity, precision, and throughput.
A New Data Dependent Acquisition Alogrithm (Fast DDA)
The analysis described demonstrates a new improved data dependent acquisition algorithm (Fast DDA) for the rapid characterization of complex protein digest samples. This method is used to characterize complex protein digest samples using a new data dependent acquisition algorithm.
Generating Purge Gas for FT/IR Spectroscopy
Water vapor and CO2 in FT-IR sample chamber lead to additional peaks that obscure information. These can be eliminated by sealing sample chamber and purging with dry, CO2 free air/nitrogen
Analysis of Small Molecules with amaZon: Enhanced Sensitivity, Speed, and Dynamic Range
The amaZon series is the next step in Bruker Daltonics' family of ion trap mass spectrometers.
The Qualitative Analysis of Evolved Gases in Thermogravimetry by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measures the change in the weight of a sample as a function of temperature.
Drinking Water by U.S. EPA 200.8 with NexION 300X
This work describes a method using both standard and collision modes in a NexION 300X ICP-MS, in anticipation of Method 200.8 allowing the use of collision/reaction cell technology for drinking water.
Temperature Induced Changes in Clays Measured by Diamond ATR FT-IR Spectroscopy
Increasing temperature can cause chemical changes, alter reaction rates, concentrate an aqueous sample, or evaporate a solvent. These transformations can be readily monitored by diamond ATR spectroscopy. This note explores the use of a diamond ATR to examine heat-induced changes in the clay.
Sample Preparation for NIR Analysis
A much discussed issue related to near infrared analysis (NIR) is the necessity of sample preparation. Ground and unground samples of wheat were analyzed to determine how truly necessary it is to homogenize samples before NIR analysis. The new Retsch TWISTER mill, specifically designed for NIR sample preparation, was utilized for this comparative study.
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Application Notes - Molecular Spectroscopy
Getting The Best Results from NIR Measurements
Obtaining optimal results with NIR spectrometers depends more on a good signal-to-noise ratio and less on high spectral resolution. Read More
One Platform Particle Characterization with Static Imaging and Raman
Particles retained on a filter during a quality control process were investigated using the ParticleFinder module, which combines static imaging and Raman spectroscopy for both morphological and chemical characterization.
Analysis of Artificially Weathered PET and a Separate PET Hydrolysis Evaluation Using the 4300 Handheld FTIR
This application note shows that a handheld infrared spectrometer is effective at measuring early onset chemical changes in environmentally stressed PET polymers that precede cracking and other physical degradation processes.
Detection of Adulteration of Glycerol with Diethylene Glycol by IR
There is a significant number of glycerol adulteration cases found by various regulatory services around the world. This application note focuses on fast and accurate verification of samples or to confirm the presence and concentration of the common adulterant diethylene glycol (DEG).
Chemical Analysis of Microscopic Fluorescent Materials by Dispersive 1064 Raman System
Raman measurement on microscopic inclusions in fluorescent materials requires the ability to measure in small volumes, excellent throughput, and long wavelength excitation such as 1064 nm for fluorescence reduction.
Monitoring the Thermal Treatment of a Heterogeneous Catalyst Using DRIFTS
The thermal treatment of a grafted Sn-SiO2 catalyst was monitored in situ using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS).
Using the Full Spectrum for Raman: From UV to NIR
The "inelastic scattering of light," or Raman effect, was observed in practice for the first time in 1928 by C.V. Raman for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1930.
Atmospheric Applications IFS 125HR
Bruker's IFS 125HR spectrometer is designed as an ultra-high resolution FT-IR spectrometer which provides outstanding performance for R&D laboratory application.
Miniature Spectrometers for Narrowband Laser Characterization
Used everywhere from bar code scanners to sophisticated single-molecule microscopes, lasers are powerful and cost-effective light sources for applications spanning basic research to consumer entertainment.
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Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
First Regulatory Limit for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water Awaited in California
The California Department of Public Health has proposed to establish the first regulatory limit in the United States for hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) in drinking water. The proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) sets the limit for hexavalent chromium at 10 parts per billion. California, like those of other states and United States federal government, currently only regulates total chromium levels.
Advancing Laser Ablation Chemical Analysis
Rick Russo, the winner of the 2013 Lester W. Strock Award, is known for important advances in laser ablation for use in spectrochemical analysis. In a new interview, he talks about those developments, how his career developed, and what it's like, as a research scientist, to lead a start-up company.
Ralph Sturgeon on Current Issues in Atomic Spectroscopy
Sample Handling, Speciation, Isotope Analysis, and Nanomaterials
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Atomic Perspectives Column
X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Part II: Sample Preparation
In quantitative XRF analyses, the largest errors generally arise from sample preparation. To address that problem, this installment of "Atomic Perspectives" presents the fundamental assumptions necessary to prepare a bulk powder material for the best possible accuracy. It also explains the physics involved during the excitation and emission processes as well as the major sources of error in preparing powders. Further, it describes the basics of grinding and pressing, and the fusion method of sample preparation.
Quick and Easy Dissolution of Chromite Ores, Ferrochromes, and Chromium Slags for ICP-OES without Using HF or HClO4
A new sodium peroxide fusion method is described, as well as the conditions for inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, and a list of the accuracy and precision measurements for all prepared samples.
Sulfur Determination in Fuels by ICP-OES and ICP-MS to Meet Increasingly Stricter Legislation Requirements
A critical review of the main developments in instrument technology, calibration, and sample preparation that have made it possible to determine low sulfur concentrations in fuels followed by a discussion of strategies to minimize spectral interferences related to sulfur determination by ICP-MS, such as collision–reaction cells, high-resolution mass analyzers, and the interference standard method.
How to Select an ICP-MS System: Some Important Considerations
Evaluation guidelines and important factors for laboratory scientists to consider when choosing an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry instrument
X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Part I: The Educational Essentials
The main areas of training necessary for a good foundation in the analytical methodology of XRF spectroscopy are discussed.
ICP-MS Analysis of Low-Level Beryllium in Urine
A case study demonstrating the use of an ICP-MS system to detect low levels of beryllium in urine, using a simple but highly sensitive method
William Henry Fox Talbot and the Foundations of Spectrochemical Analysis
A historical account of Talbot's contributions to spectroscopy
High-Throughput Soil Analysis Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry
ICP-OES can provide assistance in setting up an EPA 200.7 soil analysis method.
Efficient Removal of Polyatomic Spectral Interferences for the Multielement Analysis of Complex Human Biological Samples by ICP-MS
How to reduce plasma-, matrix-, and solvent-induced polyatomic interference by bleeding a collision–reaction gas into the tip of the interface skimmer cone
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Atomic Spectroscopy
X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Part II: Sample Preparation
In quantitative XRF analyses, the largest errors generally arise from sample preparation. To address that problem, this installment of "Atomic Perspectives" presents the fundamental assumptions necessary to prepare a bulk powder material for the best possible accuracy. It also explains the physics involved during the excitation and emission processes as well as the major sources of error in preparing powders. Further, it describes the basics of grinding and pressing, and the fusion method of sample preparation.
Rapid Determination of Trace Metals in Oil Using Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Determination of trace metals in oil and petroleum typically is based on ICP-OES methods, requiring signficant sample preparation and expensive instrumentation. This article presents an alternative method, based on the use of a handheld energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyzer, that involves minimal sample preparation, uses authentic standards for calibration, gives low parts-per-million detection limits, and provides significant time and cost savings.
First Regulatory Limit for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water Awaited in California
The California Department of Public Health has proposed to establish the first regulatory limit in the United States for hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) in drinking water. The proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) sets the limit for hexavalent chromium at 10 parts per billion. California, like those of other states and United States federal government, currently only regulates total chromium levels.
Quick and Easy Dissolution of Chromite Ores, Ferrochromes, and Chromium Slags for ICP-OES without Using HF or HClO4
A new sodium peroxide fusion method is described, as well as the conditions for inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, and a list of the accuracy and precision measurements for all prepared samples.
Sulfur Determination in Fuels by ICP-OES and ICP-MS to Meet Increasingly Stricter Legislation Requirements
A critical review of the main developments in instrument technology, calibration, and sample preparation that have made it possible to determine low sulfur concentrations in fuels followed by a discussion of strategies to minimize spectral interferences related to sulfur determination by ICP-MS, such as collision–reaction cells, high-resolution mass analyzers, and the interference standard method.
Emerging Technology Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy Are Solving Real-World Application Problems
A look at ICP–MS, ICP–OES, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the areas of research and development, marketing, application, and use of these techniques.
Handheld Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer for In-field Elemental Analysis
SciAps has developed a handheld analyzer based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).
Single Reaction Chamber Microwave Digestion of Highly Organic Matrices
Sample matrices with high organic content have created a significant challenge for sample preparation methods.
Moxtek's MXDPP-50: X-ray Detection Performance Characterizations
Moxtek now has a full energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detector solution with Moxtek's XPIN detectors and our new MXDPP-50 electronics.
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Automation/Computers
Archiving Electronic Records
Paper is easy to archive, but what about archiving electronic records? What do you do with all the electronic records that are generated? In this month's installment, columnist Bob McDowall explores the issue of electronic records management and looks at the recent guidance issued by the OECD for GLP laboratories.
Understanding the FDA's Current Thinking on Security and Access Control Requirements for Computerized Systems
Using information provided by guidance documents from outside the spectroscopy laboratory can be very useful when trying to meet the regulations that we must follow.
Fully Integrated Analysis of Metabolites, Impurities, andDegradants Using LC–NMR–MS
Combining the three techniques of LC, MS, and NMR into one integrated system provides optimal use of NMR intrument time by using information-rich MS data to automatically guide the NMR operation. Here, the authors explore just this type of system.
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Biological/Medical Analysis
Miniature Optical Spectrometers: Follow the Money Part II: The Telecommunications Boom
The author examines NIR spectrometers and the technologies developed during the telecommunications boom of the late 1990s, focusing on miniaturized optical techniques generally called MOEMS.
Duncan Graham Named Recipient of Coblentz Society's 2012 Craver Award
The Coblentz Society and the Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies (FACSS) recently named Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde (Glasgow, Scotland) as the recipient of the Coblentz Society?s 2012 Craver Award.
FT-IR–Raman Combination: The Perfect Analytical Solution for Vibrational Spectroscopists
The authors discuss the combined use of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in fields such as forensic science, biomedical science, catalysis, and polymers.
New Technique for Detection of Carbon Nanotubes in the Body
New research being conducted at the University of Arkansas is demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect and monitor circulating carbon nanotubes in vivo and in real time.
Mass Spectrometry and Glial Cells
Using a new mass spectrometry technique and stem cells that can be made to produce either neurons or glial cells, a team of researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies (La Jolla, California) identified a molecular signaling pathway that is required for the production of glial cells, yielding insight into the neurobiology of Down?s syndrome and several nervous system disorders characterized by too many glial cells.
Probing the Structural Effects of Pasteurization and Spray Drying on Soy Protein Isolate in the Presence of Trehalose Using FT-IR-ATR and FT-Raman Spectroscopy
The authors present the results of a study in which FT-IR-ATR and FT-Raman spectrosopies were used to probe the effects of pasteurization and spray drying on the secondary structure of soy protein isolate.
Surface-Enhanced Nanosensors
January 2007. This review article summarizes biological applications that utilize surface plasmon resonance, localized surface plasmon resonance, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.
Analysis of Volatile Bacterial Metabolites by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Here the authors describe a new method for the identification of key volatile organic compound markers using mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography.
Measurement of Metabolic Stability Using SIM and Identification of Metabolites by Data-Dependent full-Scan MS-MS and CNL Scanning
In this article, the role of a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in performing in vitro studies of compound metabolic stability and identification of Phase I and II metabolites is demonstrated.
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Book Reviews
Book Review
This book makes serious efforts to include examples of the various ways in which information about the underlying behavior of a system can be extracted from data obtained from the system.
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Calibration/Validation
USP <1058> Analytical Instrument Qualification and the Laboratory Impact
In this column, Bob McDowall discusses the impact of USP general chapter 1058 on the spectroscopy laboratory.
Validation of Spectrometry Software: The Proactive Use of a Traceability Matrix in Spectrometry Software Validation, Part I: Principles
Tracing requirements from a user requirements specification throughout the life cycle is not only a very effective business tool to save time and effort in validation projects but also a regulatory expectation. This first installment of a two-part column series looks at the principles of a traceability matrix.
Validation of Spectrometry Software: Understanding the Role and Content of a Validation Master Plan
Columnist Bob McDowall discusses the role of a validation master plan (VMP) for summarizing a laboratory's approach to computer validation.
Validation of Spectrometry Software: The Proactive Use of a Traceability Matrix in Spectrometry Software Validation, Part II: Practice
The second part of this column series on traceability matrices looks at some of the practical ways of tracing requirements from the user requirements throughout the life cycle documents.
Validation of Spectrometry Software - To Patch or Not To Patch - That Is the Question
Columnist Bob McDowall discusses operating system security patches.
Mass Calibration: Special Needs for Proteomics
Part IV of this four-part series wraps up the discussion of mass calibration, covering the "new generation" attributes that have become apparent as researchers aim to meet the calibration demands of proteomics.
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Chemometrics
Calibration Transfer, Part IV: Measuring the Agreement Between Instruments Following Calibration Transfer
The statistical methods used for evaluating the agreement between two or more instruments (or methods) for reported analytical results are discussed, with an emphasis on acceptable analytical accuracy and confidence levels using two standard approaches, standard uncertainty or relative standard uncertainty, and Bland-Altman "limits of agreement."
Statistics and Chemometrics for Clinical Data Reporting, Part I
This article describes the application of chemometric methods and statistics for reporting clinical quantitative measurement methods. The equations and terminology are consistent with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. These chemometric and statistical methods describe the accuracy and precision of a test method compared to a reference method for a single analyte determination. Part I will introduce these concepts and Part II will discuss the statistical underpinnings in greater detail.
The Long, Complicated, Tedious, and Difficult Route to Principal Components: Coda
Columnists Howard Mark and Jerome Workman, Jr. take a final look at the topic of principal components, which has been the subject of six previous installments.
The Long, Complicated, Tedious, and Difficult Route to Principal Components: Part VI
This column is a continuation of the set we have been working on to explain and derive the equations behind principal components (1–5). As we usually do, when we continue the discussion of a topic through more than one column, we continue the numbering of equations from where we left off.
The Long, Complicated, Tedious, and Difficult Route to Principal Components: Part V
For a system of homogeneous equations to have a solution other than the trivial solution, the determinant of the system of equations must be zero.
The Long, Complicated, Tedious, and Difficult Route to Principal Components: Part III
Howard Mark and Jerome Workman, Jr. continue their discussion of the derivation of the principal component algorithm using elementary algebra.
The Long, Complicated, Tedious, and Difficult Route to Principal Components: Part II
Howard Mark and Jerome Workman, Jr. continue their discussion of the derivation of the principal component algorithm using elementary algebra.
The Long, Complicated, Tedious, and Difficult Route to Principal Components: Part I
In this month's installment, columnists Howard Mark and Jerome Workman, Jr. present the derivation of the principal component algorithm using elementary algebra.
Addendum to Chemometrics in Spectroscopy
This column is the continuation of a series (1-5) dealing with the rigorous derivation of the expressions relating the effect of instrument (and other) noise to its effects on the spectra we observe. Our first column in this series was an overview. While subsequent columns dealt with other types of noise sources, the ones listed analyzed the effect of noise on spectra when the noise is constant detector noise (that is, noise that is independent of the strength of the optical signal). Inasmuch as we are dealing with a continuous series of columns, on this branch in the thread of the discussion, we again continue the equation numbering and use of symbols as though there were no break. The immediately previous column (5) was the first part of this set of updates of the original columns.
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Chemometrics in Spectroscopy Column
Units of Measure in Spectroscopy, Part II: What Does It Mean?
Now that we have shown the relationships between different units for concentration, we continue by demonstrating their effects on the data we collected and used for our examples. What are the ramifications and consequences of these findings?
Calibration Transfer, Part V: The Mathematics of Wavelength Standards Used for Spectroscopy
What are the techniques and mathematics used to compute uncertainty, and the optimum methods for maintaining wavelength accuracy within instrumentation over time, when considering measurement condition changes?
Units of Measure in Spectroscopy, Part I: It's the Volume, Folks!
The data show that different units of measurement have different relationships to the spectral values, for reasons having nothing to do with the spectroscopy. This finding disproves the assumption that different measures of concentration are equivalent except, perhaps, for a constant scaling factor.
Calibration Transfer, Part IV: Measuring the Agreement Between Instruments Following Calibration Transfer
The statistical methods used for evaluating the agreement between two or more instruments (or methods) for reported analytical results are discussed, with an emphasis on acceptable analytical accuracy and confidence levels using two standard approaches, standard uncertainty or relative standard uncertainty, and Bland-Altman "limits of agreement."
Calibration Transfer, Part III: The Mathematical Aspects
Calibration transfer is a series of techniques used to apply a single spectral database, and the calibration model developed using that database, to two or more instruments. Here, we review the mathematical approaches and issues related to the calibration transfer process.
Calibration Transfer, Part II: The Instrumentation Aspects
Part II of this series surveys the issues related to instrument measurement differences associated with the calibration transfer problem.
Calibration Transfer
A definition for calibration transfer is proposed, along with a method for evaluating it, based on recent discoveries about the nature of light absorbance in spectroscopic analysis.
Classical Least Squares, Part XI: Comparison of Results from the Two Laboratories Continued, and Then the Light Dawns
In the final installment of this series, the main problem is solved using the CLS algorithm to find that the spectroscopy is sensitive to the volume fractions of the various components in a mixture.
Classical Least Squares, Part X: Numerical Results from the Second Laboratory
The results from the experiment in the second laboratory are calculated and examined.
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Conferences and Exhibitions
Pittcon 2009 New Product Review
Spectroscopy columnist Howard Mark takes a comprehensive look at the products that were introduced at Pittcon 2009 in Chicago.
57th ASMS Conference Preview
Spectroscopy previews the upcoming ASMS conference to be held May 31–June 4, 2009, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
35th Annual FACSS Meeting
Spectroscopy previews the upcoming 35th Annual Meeting of the FACSS, to be held September 28 to October 2, 2008, in Reno, Nevada.
35th Annual FACSS Meeting
Spectroscopy previews the upcoming 35th Annual Meeting of the FACSS, to be held September 28 to October 2, 2008, in Reno, Nevada.
DXC 2008: The World's Leading Forum for X-Ray Materials Analysis
A preview of the 57th Annual Denver X-Ray Conference, to be held August 4–8 in Denver, Colorado.
DXC 2008: The World's Leading Forum for X-Ray Materials Analysis
A preview of the 57th Annual Denver X-Ray Conference, to be held August 4–8 in Denver, Colorado.
The 56th Annual ASMS Conference: A Review
A summary of the five-day mass spectrometry conference held this month in Denver, Colorado.
Highlights of the 56th Annual ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry
Spectroscopy Magazine was well represented at the 56th Annual ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, held at the Colorado Convention Center in Denver, Colorado, from June 1?5, 2008.
Pittcon 2008: Back to New Orleans and Coffee and Beignets for Breakfast
John Coates presents a comprehensive review of the products and accessories introduced at Pittcon this year.
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Current Issues
A Novel Approach to Measure Crop Plant Protein Expression
Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) successfully differentiated transgenic from native protein in a case where the proteins were highly homologous and could not be differentiated by traditional methods. This methodology may be useful for other studies of transgenic crops.
Nontargeted, Discovery-Based Profiling of the Yeast Metabolome Using QTOF LC–MS and LC–MS-MS
A discovery-based, untargeted metabolomics analysis of hundreds of yeast metabolites under robust, controlled extraction conditions followed by identification is described.
Identification of Organic Additives in Nitrile Rubber Materials by Pyrolysis-GC–MS
Nitrile rubber materials were studied using flash analytical pyrolysis-GC–MS to demonstrate that this technique is a good tool to identify the additives in nitrile rubber.
Polar Vapor-Enhanced Separations with Planar Differential Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry
A brief historical overview of DMS, followed by a synopsis of the instrumentation, physics, and chemistry behind the separation principles
Direct Insertion Probe – Mass Spectrometry (DIP-MS) in the Characterization of Opportunity Crudes
DIP–MS is a fast and easy tool that can identify classes of compounds in opportunity crudes (heavy and ultraheavy crude oils, asphaltenes, and tar sands) in the field, without prior separation or treatment. It may enable fast screening of real samples to make a rough evaluation of the potential of reservoirs and oil fields.
Toward Quantitative Imaging Mass Spectrometry
The main limitations of quantification using MALDI imaging are discussed and the different approaches used for quantitative measurement in MSI are evaluated.
Atomic Absorption: Current and Future Trends
Atomic absorption (AA) is a mature technique, but many laboratories are still finding room for innovation and continued success with it. Joining us for this discussion are Charles A. Schneider, PerkinElmer, Inc., and Fergus Keenan, Thermo Fisher Scientific.
Synchrotron Radiation-Based XRF Reveals the Secrets of Famous Paintings
Koen Janssens, professor of chemistry at the University of Antwerp (Belgium), uses synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to analyze historic works of art. In a recent study, he used various spectroscopic techniques, including several X-ray methods, to reveal the process by which the yellow paint in some of Vincent Van Gogh?s paintings darkened over time.
Spectroscopy in Space: Hubble and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph
In an upcoming spacewalk, shuttle astronauts will swap the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) device for the new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS).
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Departments: News Spectrum Column
News Spectrum
EAS Conference Preview of Spectroscopy Sessions and New Features by Justin Pennington, 2013 program chair
News Spectrum
Industry–Academic Postdoctoral Placement; The Search for Life on Other Planets: NASA's McKay to Present Keynote at SciX 2012
News Spectrum
Jens Frisvad Receives Thought Leader Award; Waters and Fera Focus on Food Safety
News Spectrum
News Spectrum
News Spectrum
New Optical Technique Promises Rapid and Accurate Malaria Diagnosis; Ultrafast Spectroscopy Provides Clear Understanding of How Glass Behaves
News Spectrum
European Chemicals Agency Launches Chemical Classification and Labeling Inventory
News Spectrum
Annual Award Recognizes Innovative Academic Research in Remote Sensing; Duncan Graham Named Recipient of Coblentz Society's 2012 Craver Award
News Spectrum
Spectroscopy magazine is pleased to announce the addition of Jim Rydzak to its editorial advisory board.
News Spectrum
Micky Myrick Joins Spectroscopy's Editorial Advisory Board
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End of the Spectrum Column
Active Volcanoes in Space?
Spectrometer discovers signs of active cryovolcanoes on Saturn's largest moon, Titan.
End of the Spectrum: Spectroscosaurus Rex
Spectroscopy editor Brian Johnson discusses recent mass spectrometric findings linking dinosaurs and modern birds.
End of the Spectrum: Spectroscopy Plays the Violin
Brian Johnson takes a look at two types of spectroscopy that help unlock the secrets of the famous Stradivarius violins.
End of the Spectrum: NIR Speaks a Second Language
Spectroscopy editor Brian Johnson discusses how, by using near-infrared spectroscopy to examine the human brain's higher cognitive capacities, researchers at Dartmouth College have discovered areas in the brain that indicate bilingualism. Their goal is to unravel the mystery of how a bilingual person enhances the brain?s language centers as opposed to a monolingual person.
End of the Spectrum: Infrared Spectrometry on the Moon
The European Space Agency brings infrared spectrometry to new heights.
End of the Spectrum: A 3D Look at Alzheimer's Disease
A new imaging technique based on MRI scans lets researchers study brain structure changes in early stages of the disease.
End of the Spectrum: The Changing Trend in U.S. Research Funding
Most of the 2.2 billion dollars increase in the 2006 federal research and development budget will go toward defense weapons development and human space exploration technologies, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
End of the Spectrum: Studying Water One Molecule at a Time
Chemists use spectroscopy to understand the unusual chemical behavior of water at the molecular level.
End of the Spectrum: Revealing More Than Meets the Eye
Using MXRF, researchers have developed a novel method that detects fingerprints through the salts that are excreted in sweat.
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FT-IR Spectroscopy
Macro ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopic Imaging of Dynamic Processes
Macro attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging is a powerful and underutilized tool. This article presents an overview of approaches and opportunities for using this method to study dynamic processes such as diffusion, sorption, crystallization, and dissolution.
Resonance-Enhanced Nanoscale IR Spectroscopy of Ultrathin Films and Monolayers on Metals
Resonance-enhanced atomic force microscopy (AFM)–infrared (IR) is a new technique that couples an atomic force microscope with a pulsed tunable IR laser source to provide high spatial resolution chemical analysis of samples as thin as a monolayer. The AFM probe tip acts as a small local detector of the thermal expansion of the sample caused by the absorption of the monochromatic IR radiation.
Identifying Organic Impurities in Counterfeit and Illicit Tobacco Using Portable ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopy
Counterfeit and illicit tobacco may contain potentially toxic organic impurities that result in adverse health effects to the consumer. The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of the identification of organic impurities in counterfeit or illicit tobacco using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy.
Identifying Synthetic Designer Drugs Using FT-IR, Raman, and GC–IR
Law enforcement relies upon "schedules" or lists of controlled substances. In an attempt to circumvent the law, clandestine laboratories produce synthetic designer drugs that are chemically related to a controlled substance, but are different enough to raise legal issues with prosecution.
Measuring Orientation in Polymer Films
The mechanical properties of polymer films such as tensile strength and resistance to tearing depend strongly on the orientation of the polymer chains. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy can be used to measure the degree of orientation both within the plane of the film and normal to it.
The Top 13 Articles from Spectroscopy in 2013
Everyone loves a list, and the editors of Spectroscopy are no exception! In 2013, Spectroscopy covered a wide array of topics throughout the year to bring you the most relevant information for your work, on topics ranging from selecting the right ICP-MS system to deciding which Raman technique is right for you, from our annual salary survey to calibration transfer. Here is a list of 13 popular articles and columns from 2013
Exploring Advances in Passive FT-IR Remote Sensing
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from October 15, 2013.
Using Passive FT-IR Remote Sensing Measurements
Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been used to identify unknown materials, determine the quality or consistency of a sample, and determine the amount of components in a mixture. Gary Small, of the Department of Chemistry and Optical Science and Technology Center at the University of Iowa, spoke to Spectroscopy about his work using passive FT-IR remote sensing measurements.
A Rapid FT-IR-based Method for Monitoring Detergent Removal from Biological Samples
A novel infrared-based method that permits fast and impartial analysis of detergent removal from biological samples is presented.
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FT-NIR Spectroscopy
Combining Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Techniques
An interview with Charles Wilkins, the winner of the 2013 American Chemical Society Division of Analytical Chemistry Award in Chemical Instrumentation, sponsored by the Dow Chemical Company.
Rapid Identification of Illicit and Prescription Drugs Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy
The authors discuss the use of FT-NIR to identify several different types of drug formulations.
Wavelength Tech Forum: FT-IR/NIR Spectroscopy
This month's Technology Forum looks at the topic of FT-IR/NIR spectroscopy and the trends and issues surrounding it. Joining us for this discussion are Rohit Bhargava, with the University of Illinois, Chris Petty, with Thermo Fisher Scientific, Jim Yano and John Beauchaine, with Aspectrics, Richard Larsen, with Jasco, Inc., and Alan Rein, with A2 Technologies.
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Featured Articles
LIBS Basics, Part III: Deriving the Analytical Answer — Calibrated Solutions with LIBS
Users must be careful when developing material classification and calibration methods for LIBS. By following some guidelines, one can achieve relative standard deviation values of 2–3% for many types of analysis, and below 1% for homogenous samples.
GC–MS Analysis of an Herbal Medicinal Remedy to Identify Potential Toxic Compounds
In most countries, herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are introduced into the market without proper scientific evaluation or enforced safety and toxicological studies.
Simultaneous Determination of Methylxanthines and Cotinine in Human Plasma by Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by LC–MS-MS
A multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the analysis of methylxanthines (caffeine and its metabolites) and cotinine in human plasma.
Large-Scale Targeted Protein Quantification Using Wide Selected-Ion Monitoring Data-Independent Acquisition
This article describes the development of a new data-independent acquisition (DIA) workflow for protein quantification that uses a mass spectrometer that combines three types of mass analyzers to achieve lower limits of detection (LOD), higher sensitivity, more accurate quantitative results, wider dynamic range, and better reproducibility than existing high-resolution accurate-mass (HRAM) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) DIA workflows.
Unraveling the Links Between Diet and Human Health Using LC–MS-MS
We recently spoke to Gary Duncan and Wendy Russell of the Rowett Institute of Nutrition & Health in Aberdeen, Scotland, about the significance of phytochemical bioavailability to human health and the important role of liquid chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) in their research.
Macro ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopic Imaging of Dynamic Processes
Macro attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging is a powerful and underutilized tool. This article presents an overview of approaches and opportunities for using this method to study dynamic processes such as diffusion, sorption, crystallization, and dissolution.
Application of Ambient Sampling Portable Mass Spectrometry Toward On-Site Screening of Clandestine Drug Operations
Worldwide trends in illicit drug use and production have shifted toward an increase in synthetic analogues and the emergence of new variations in their manufacture.
Raman Spectra of Metal Oxides
Metal oxides often occur in crystals where there are no molecular units. Here, we provide an introduction to the concepts that need to be understood when analyzing metal oxides in materials such as paint, ceramic pigments, corrosion films, catalysts, and minerals.
Units of Measure in Spectroscopy, Part II: What Does It Mean?
Now that we have shown the relationships between different units for concentration, we continue by demonstrating their effects on the data we collected and used for our examples. What are the ramifications and consequences of these findings?
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Fiber Optics
Can You See Me Now?
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed light-detecting fibers that act like a flexible camera when woven into a web.
Fiber Optics
Getting light from one place to another is a key task in any spectroscopic method. Sometimes we send light through (mostly) empty space using mirrors or lenses, and sometimes we use things called fiber optics. This installment of "The Baseline" tackles fiber optics.
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Field-Based Methods
Rapid Field Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals Using a Hand-Portable GC–TMS System
In this article, methods developed for rapid, automated detection of CWAs and TICs using a low thermal mass capillary gas chromatograph coupled to a toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer (TMS) are presented.
Portable FT-IR and Raman Spectroscopy for Explosives Identification
This article discusses instruments that can be used in the field to rapidly and accurately identify various explosives and their precursors.
Chemical Warfare Agents and Use of Thermal Desorption–GC–MS to Achieve Improved Trace-Level Detection
This article discusses the analysis of a wide range of CWAs at current exposure limits and describes a number of recent beneficial developments in TD and associated analytical technologies for the identification and quantification of CWAs at these levels.
Chemical Warfare Agent Spectral Imaging for Real-Time Identification and Localization
In this article, the authors discuss the need for protection against chemical attacks and the role of passive imaging spectroradiometers in the detection of remote chemical agents.
Forensic Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Aging of Bloodstains
The authors discuss the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of a bloodstain, which can be critical in helping establish when a crime was committed.
Handheld FT-IR Spectrometers: Bringing the Spectrometer to the Sample
This article focuses on the emergence of handheld, portable FT-IR spectrometers and the implications with respect to applications and use.
Performance Characterization of ion Detectors in Harsh Environments
Recent developments in sample inlet systems, improved software, and the advent of special purpose mass spectrometers have improved the utility of MS instruments. here, the authors discuss this new utility.
New Technologies for Process Analytical and Quality Control Applications: Compact Raman
Guest author John Coates describes a new, compact handheld Raman instrument.
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Fluorescence
X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Analysis of Sm3+ in Lithium Calcium Silicate
Here, Li2CaSiO4:Sm3+ reddish orange phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method and examined by spectroscopic methods.
Using Single-Cell Fluorescence to Monitor the Ocean's Ecosystems
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from September 11, 2012.
Using Single-Cell Fluorescence to Track Phytoplankton Communities in the Ocean
An interview with Mickey Myrick and Tammi Richardson of the University of South Carolina
Tracking Molecular Transport in Chromatographic Particles with Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging
An interview with Justin Cooper, winner of a 2011 FACSS Innovation Award. Part of a new podcast series presented in collaboration with the Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies (FACSS), in connection with SciX 2012 ? the Great Scientific Exchange, the North American conference (39th Annual) of FACSS.
Tracking Unknown Intracellular Activity with Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy
The basic techniques of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are discussed as well as several applications, such as nanoparticle dispersion studies.
Measurement Techniques for Mercury: Which Approach Is Right for You?
The advantages and disadvantages of measuring mercury with cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy, and direct analysis by thermal decomposition are explained.
The Dynamic World of X-ray Fluorescence
From the field to the synchrotron, XRF is expanding its power and scope.
Pittcon 2011 New Product Review
Our yearly review of the hottest products at Pittcon
Total Reflectance X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) provides sensitive analysis of the atomic composition of samples. The technique is particularly well-suited for analyzing the elemental range from sodium to uranium, which covers the majority of the metallic elements.
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Focus on Quality Column
GLP and GMP Approaches to Method Validation — Going the Same Way?
A review of the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) stimulus paper on the revision process to adopt quality-by-design principles for the development, validation, and operation of analytical procedures used for good manufacturing practice (GMP) analysis — and how it compares to a draft guidances by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for industry on validation of analytical and bioanalytical procedures.
Cloud Computing: How to Choose the Right Cloud Supplier
When a laboratory — particularly a regulated GxP laboratory — contemplates using the cloud, finding a suitable supplier is critical
An Integrated Risk Assessment for Analytical Instruments and Computerized Laboratory Systems
A risk assessment helps determine the amount of qualification and validation work necessary to show that instruments and computerized laboratory systems are fit for their intended purpose. Here's how to do it.
Why Do We Need Quality Agreements?
In pharmaceutical contract manufacturing, the work of analytical scientists is covered by a quality agreement, which is prepared by personnel in the quality control or quality assurance department and focuses on the laboratory analyses provided. But what exactly are quality agreements, why do we need them, who should be involved in writing them, and what should they contain? Here, we answer those questions.
How Complete Are Your Data?
A look at what the requirements are for "complete data" for laboratories working under the FDA GMP regulations. We also review the observations listed by inspectors on 483 forms from 2006 to 2012, to assess the common mistakes companies make.
How Much Value is there in a Software Operational Qualification?
Answers to common questions about operational qualification (OQ) software
Software Out of the Box?
A look at how the term commercial off-the-shelf can be abused in marketing literature.
Is Cloud Computing Right for Your Laboratory . . . or Are You Living in Cloud Cuckoo Land?
A discussion of the various options for cloud computing, avoiding the marketing hype and focusing on the potential advantages and disadvantages for your laboratory
USP <1058> and the GAMP Guide on Laboratory Computerized Systems – Is Integration Possible?
Here's what needs to be done to harmonize these two documents.
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History
A Timeline of Atomic Spectroscopy
October 2006. This timeline provides a short history of the experimental and theoretical development of atomic spectroscopy for elemental spectrochemical analysis.
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Hyphenated Techniques
Market Profile: LC-MS Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
An oft-overlooked segment of the mass spectrometry market is time-of-flight LC–MS. Although LC-TOF does not possess the capabilities of more expensive mass spectrometry techniques, it fills an important price-to-performance segment of the market. The trickling down of technology and heavy competition are contributing to a strong market outlook for the area.
Market Profile: LC-ICP-MS
The coupling of HPLC with ICP-MS is a relatively new technique that combines two very well established analytical methods. The combination of these analytical methods provides what could prove to be a very useful technique in clinical analysis. The total LC-ICP-MS market amounts to only a few percent of the overall ICP-MS market, but it is rapidly developing into a significant niche market.
Advances in the Separation and Detection of As, Cr, and Se Species in Potable Waters Using HPLC Coupled with Dynamic Reaction Cell ICP-MS
Here, the authors discuss a multielement method for the simultaneous determination of inorganic As, Cr, and Se species in potable waters using a HPLC system coupled to a dynamic reaction cell indusctively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.
High performance Mass Spectroscopy Begins with High-Performance Separations
This article discusses the role of recent LC developments in th quest for greater sensitivity, more complete sample characterization, and greater productivity.
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ICP-MS
First Regulatory Limit for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water Awaited in California
The California Department of Public Health has proposed to establish the first regulatory limit in the United States for hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) in drinking water. The proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) sets the limit for hexavalent chromium at 10 parts per billion. California, like those of other states and United States federal government, currently only regulates total chromium levels.
Quick and Easy Dissolution of Chromite Ores, Ferrochromes, and Chromium Slags for ICP-OES without Using HF or HClO4
A new sodium peroxide fusion method is described, as well as the conditions for inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry, and a list of the accuracy and precision measurements for all prepared samples.
Emerging Technology Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy Are Solving Real-World Application Problems
A look at ICP–MS, ICP–OES, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the areas of research and development, marketing, application, and use of these techniques.
Field-Portable Sampling for ICP Spectrometry: Bringing a Part of the Lab to the Sample
Conventional pneumatic nebulizer-spray chamber combinations for ICP spectrometry have a sample introduction efficiency of only 1-3%. A unique electrothermal vaporization device developed by Vassili Karanassios of the University of Waterloo uses field-portable rhenium filament coils with a very small vaporization chamber and increases the sample introduction efficiency to 100%.
Rhenium Coil Field Sampling for Determinations by ICP-AES with Electrothermal Vaporization Introduction
The authors have been characterizing an electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) micro- and nano-sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry.
Optimizing the Sample Preparation of Metals: Single-Reaction-Chamber Microwave Digestions for Contract Analytical Laboratories
Contract analytical laboratories use a variety of instrumentation for trace-metal analysis and must take advantage of method standardization whenever there is an opportunity.
Elemental Detection of Semiconductor Process Gases Using a Gas-Exchange Device Coupled to ICP-MS
This article describes the direct measurement of trace levels of organometallic process gases in semiconductor manufacturing environments using a gas-exchange device coupled with quadrupole inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
The Benefits of Ion–Molecule Chemistry for the Determination of Titanium in Whole Blood and Serum Using Quadrupole-Based Collision–Reaction Cell ICP-MS Technology
This article highlights the benefits of using ion-molecule chemistry in a quadrupole-based collision–reaction cell to determine titanium levels in the presence of problematic polyatomic spectral interferences encountered in the analysis of human blood and serum samples from patients who have undergone artificial joint replacement surgery.
Triple-Quadrupole ICP-MS Provides Improved Performance for Difficult Polyatomic and Isobaric Overlaps on Lead Isotopes
Triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can operate in MS-MS mode, which offers the potential to improve the removal of spectral interferences compared to conventional quadrupole ICP-MS with a collision–reaction cell, or high-resolution ICP-MS.
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Imaging/Microspectroscopy
Simultaneous Measurement of Chlorophyll and Water Content in Navel Orange Leaves Based on Hyperspectral Imaging
Here, hyperspectral imaging was used to simultaneously estimate chlorophyll and water content of Gannan navel orange leaves.
A Picture of Pentacene
Scientists from IBM Research used an atomic force microscope to create the first-ever close-up image of a single molecule.
Advanced Infrared Imaging for Sample Analysis
The authors look at the ways in which an imaging FT-IR microscope system with an integrated linear array detector can aid in the examination of a wide array of samples.
The Revolution in Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry: Spectrum Imaging at Output Count Rates Above 1 MHz with the Silicon Drift Detector on a Scanning Electron Microscope
The author discusses the improvements offered by silicon drift detector energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SDD-EDS) systems over the classic Si(Li)-EDS for mapping the compositional microstructure of matter with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Advantages of High OD Filters to Microscopy
The author discusses the use of filters in optical microscopy and the advantages that have been gained as a result of developments in filter technology.
Chemical Warfare Agent Spectral Imaging for Real-Time Identification and Localization
In this article, the authors discuss the need for protection against chemical attacks and the role of passive imaging spectroradiometers in the detection of remote chemical agents.
Maximizing Your IR Microscope: Techniques for Improved Performance and Measurement
The author discusses how researchers can gain the most accurate and useful data from their equipment by employing careful sampling and microscope techniques and following a few common best practices.
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Industrial Spectroscopy
Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry: A Tool for Characterizing the Petroleome
The authors demonstrate the capacity to separate petroleum-derived molecules having the same nominal mass in the mobility dimension using IM-MS spectrometry.
Process Monitoring: In-line, At-line, or Slip-stream?
As process analytical technology (PAT) moves out of the laboratory and into the plant and to the process stream itself, the question arises, "What is the best way to collect data from stream samples?" The author shows that this depends upon both the nature of the stream and the components to be measured.
Analysis of Solar Silicon Using High-Throughput Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful analysis technique used in the semiconductor industry to ensure the quality of silicon and silicon wafers. The authors discuss the use of an inexpensive, lab-based system to measure carbon and oxygen concentrations in silicon to the level of precision required by the solar silicon industry.
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Industry
Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry: A Tool for Characterizing the Petroleome
The authors demonstrate the capacity to separate petroleum-derived molecules having the same nominal mass in the mobility dimension using IM-MS spectrometry.
2006 Salary Survey: Salary Changes and Job Satisfaction in the Spectroscopy Community
This year's survey of salaries and job attitudes reveals that the market seems stable, but many spectroscopists are feeling the pressure of the economy at work.
Spectroscopy Demand Expected to Outpace the Industry in 2006
Realistically, 2005 was a good year for the laboratory analytical and life science instrument industry. Although growth has moderated from that experienced in the 1990s, a general rebound in worldwide industrial demand, and continued spending for life science and strong growth in Asia and North America drove instrument systems and aftermarket sales. Similar to last year, 2006 should be a year of healthy sales growth as global economic conditions support continued market expansion.
Process Monitoring: In-line, At-line, or Slip-stream?
As process analytical technology (PAT) moves out of the laboratory and into the plant and to the process stream itself, the question arises, "What is the best way to collect data from stream samples?" The author shows that this depends upon both the nature of the stream and the components to be measured.
VWR, PerkinElmer Expand Chromatography, Spectroscopy Products Deal
PerkinElmer announced that it has signed a new distribution agreement with VWR International.
LabVantage Completes Acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation's SQL*LIMS Business
LabVantage announced that it has completed the acquisition of Life Technologies Corporation's SQL*LIMS business.
Analysis of Solar Silicon Using High-Throughput Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful analysis technique used in the semiconductor industry to ensure the quality of silicon and silicon wafers. The authors discuss the use of an inexpensive, lab-based system to measure carbon and oxygen concentrations in silicon to the level of precision required by the solar silicon industry.
The Waters Centre for BioMedical Mass Spectrometry at the University of Warwick
Waters Corporation (Milford, Massachusetts) and the University of Warwick, Coventry and Warwickshire, England, signed a collaborative research agreement intended to support the growth, development and adoption of novel mass spectrometry (MS) technologies.
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Infrared Spectroscopy
How is Raman spectroscopy improving medicine?
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from June 24, 2014.
Using Infrared Spectroscopy for Real-Time Diagnostics During Brain Surgery
What if the decisions neurosurgeons make during surgery - such as about how much tissue to remove - could be guided by immediate results from spectroscopic methods? A number of spectroscopy researchers are seeking to advance methods to make that both possible and practical. One such researcher is Allison Stelling, who recently completed her PhD under Professor Peter Tonge at Stony Brook University in New York. Stelling is currently at the Center for Materials Genomics at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, working under Professor Stefano Curtarolo.
Spatial Resolution in IR Reflectance Imaging — NIR, Mid-IR, and ATR
In these types of IR imaging, various factors contribute to the observed resolution. These factors are illustrated with images of materials with known structures.
Using Infrared Spectroscopy for Real-Time Diagnostics During Brain Surgery
An interview with Allison Stelling, a recent PhD from Prof. Peter Tonge's group at Stony Brook University in New York, exploring the use of IR spectroscopy for use in intraoperative diagnostics during brain surgery.
The Top 13 Articles from Spectroscopy in 2013
Everyone loves a list, and the editors of Spectroscopy are no exception! In 2013, Spectroscopy covered a wide array of topics throughout the year to bring you the most relevant information for your work, on topics ranging from selecting the right ICP-MS system to deciding which Raman technique is right for you, from our annual salary survey to calibration transfer. Here is a list of 13 popular articles and columns from 2013
Trends in Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging
In a recent interview, Rohit Bhargava, winner of the 2013 Craver Award from the Coblentz Society, discusses current trends in IR spectroscopic imaging, including application-specific instrumentation, improvements in data interpretation, and identifying relationships between structure and spectra.
MIRTHE Workshop on Air Quality Monitoring Related to Energy Extraction Workshop Highlights Role of Mid-IR Spectroscopy
The Mid-Infrared Technologies for Health and the Environment (MIRTHE) center hosted a workshop titled “Air Quality Monitoring Related to Energy Extraction†on Friday, August 9, 2013 at Princeton University (Princeton, New Jersey). The workshop was well attended and highlighted some of the key issues surrounding energy extraction.
Combining Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Techniques
An interview with Charles Wilkins, the winner of the 2013 American Chemical Society Division of Analytical Chemistry Award in Chemical Instrumentation, sponsored by the Dow Chemical Company.
Nanoscale IR Spectroscopy: AFM-IR — A New Technique
By combining atomic force microscopy (AFM) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, one can attain spatial resolution improvements of two orders of magnitude over traditional IR spectroscopy.
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Instrumentation
Portable FT-IR and Raman Spectroscopy for Explosives Identification
This article discusses instruments that can be used in the field to rapidly and accurately identify various explosives and their precursors.
Market Profile: Handheld and Portable FT-IR
The handheld and portable Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) market is a very new and rapidly growing market thanks to the intersection of technological advancements and new demand. Relative to other portable analytical technologies, the range of applications for the technology is more diverse. Despite the rapid growth and potential for this market, however, only a handful of competitors currently dominate the market.
Market Profile: Portable Mass Spectrometers
The concept of portable mass spectrometry has been around for some time, but the realization of such technology has been largely limited until very recently. More than ever before, recent technological advances now make smaller, lighter, and more effective mass spectrometers possible. Such advances will lend themselves to a growing spectrum of applications as well.
Pittcon 2009 New Product Review
Spectroscopy columnist Howard Mark takes a comprehensive look at the products that were introduced at Pittcon 2009 in Chicago.
Think Small Revisited: Handheld Spectroscopy
Guest author John Coates describes handheld measurements performed using a palm-sized device that can be used either as an open-ended spectrometer or as a dedicated analyzer.
Modulators
Some types of spectroscopy work better if the intensity of the light source increases and decreases in a regular pattern. Such a varying signal is called modulated, and here, the author explores the devices that perform this function.
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Lasers
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A Closer Look at the Capabilities of LIBS
Dr. Richard R. Hark, a professor in the Department of Chemistry at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, discusses his work with LIBS in applications such as forensic science, conflict minerals, and geochemical fingerprinting.
LIBS Basics, Part II: Hardware
The choices for LIBS hardware are discussed in detail, particularly lasers and spectrometers, and the trade-offs between cost, size, and performance are illustrated.
The Top 13 Articles from Spectroscopy in 2013
Everyone loves a list, and the editors of Spectroscopy are no exception! In 2013, Spectroscopy covered a wide array of topics throughout the year to bring you the most relevant information for your work, on topics ranging from selecting the right ICP-MS system to deciding which Raman technique is right for you, from our annual salary survey to calibration transfer. Here is a list of 13 popular articles and columns from 2013
LIBS Basics, Part I: Measurement Physics and Implementation
An overview for those considering implementation of LIBS to solve a particular analytical problem, and an introduction for those interested in learning more about LIBS. Part I concentrates on the basics of the measurement and typical implementation.
Biomedical Applications of LIBS
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from December 10, 2013.
LIBS and Biomedical Applications
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used to determine the elemental composition of any sample, whether it's a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Steven Rehse of the University of Windsor (Windsor, Ontario, Canada) focuses on various applications of LIBS, including medical analyses. In this interview, Rehse discusses the use of LIBS for analyzing biomedical specimens such as tissues and bacteria, the limitations of the technique for biomedical applications, and possible future research with LIBS.
LA-ICP-MS Advances Parkinson's Disease Research
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from October 8, 2013.
Detecting Metals in the Brain with Laser Ablation-ICP-MS
Spectroscopy recently spoke with Dr. Dominic Hare, a senior research officer at the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health in Australia, about his work using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to study metals in the brain. His research highlights the role that iron plays in Parkinson's disease in the hopes to better understand the causes of the disease and eventually find an appropriate treatment.
Advancing Laser Ablation Chemical Analysis
Rick Russo, the winner of the 2013 Lester W. Strock Award, is known for important advances in laser ablation for use in spectrochemical analysis. In a new interview, he talks about those developments, how his career developed, and what it's like, as a research scientist, to lead a start-up company.
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Light-Scattering Detection
Examining Molecular Orientation Using ATR Spectroscopy
Analysis of Fructose, Glycine, and Triglycine Using HPLC UV-vis Detection and Evaporative Light-Scattering Detection
The development of a method for the simultaneous determination of glycine, triglycine and fructose using UV–vis and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) is described. This was necessary as part of a research project dealing with the recovery of functional peptides from aqueous streams on an industrial scale using adsorption or related technologies. Fructose is barely detectable by UV–vis as it lacks detectable functionalities, while glycine and triglycine are both UV–vis sensitive. An NH2 phase was chosen as a column and separation was obtained within seven minutes on a 250 X 4.6 mm column. Limits of detection are approximately 40 mg fructose/L, 4 mg glycine/L and 0.05 mg triglycine/L. Calibration functions are linear in a range of 40–1400 mg/L for fructose, 5–200 mg/L for glycine and 0.5–70 mg/L for triglycine.
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Magnetic Resonance/NMR
Monitoring Enzymatic Transformation with NMR: Tracking Alanine Racemase Conversion of Substrate Chirality
Spectroscopy interviewed Monique Chanhuot (Ecole Normale Sup?rieure, Paris, France) about her recent work using chiral liquid crystals in NMR to track changes in alanine chirality driven by alanine racemase. The hope is that, in the future, elucidations of the enzyme activity may enable the development of inhibitors and new antibiotics.
Combining Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Techniques
An interview with Charles Wilkins, the winner of the 2013 American Chemical Society Division of Analytical Chemistry Award in Chemical Instrumentation, sponsored by the Dow Chemical Company.
Market Profile: NMR Probes
One of the most critical components to the performance of any high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) system is the NMR probe. The probe is where all of the action happens within an NMR system, and they are offered in a wide variety of sizes and configurations for different applications. The aftermarket for NMR probes, alone, is quite a sizeable market, and will continue to be a major driver of the market.
Petrochemical Product and Process Control Using Rapid TD-NMR Technology
TD-NMR (Time-Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) is a powerful tool for the petrochemical industry, from exploration to refining, that examines materials at the molecular level to quantify physicochemical properties.
High-Throughput Push-Button NMR in Fruit Juice Quality Control Using
Market Profile: Low-Field and Fixed Magnet NMR
The high-flying field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which is continuing to see strong growth as it approaches the $1 billion mark in annual market revenues, overshadows the market for low-field and fixed magnet NMR. These systems are far simpler and less expensive than the larger systems many have come to think of when they hear the term NMR. The range of applications for low-field and fixed magnet NMR is vast, which is contributing to strong growth in demand.
Fully Integrated Analysis of Metabolites, Impurities, andDegradants Using LC–NMR–MS
Combining the three techniques of LC, MS, and NMR into one integrated system provides optimal use of NMR intrument time by using information-rich MS data to automatically guide the NMR operation. Here, the authors explore just this type of system.
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Market Profile Column
Market Profile: Elemental Analyzers
While some atomic spectrometry systems can generally detect and quantify any element in the periodic table, other instruments are specifically designed to measure only one, or at most a few, elements of interest in a particular application.
Market Profile: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
Although mass spectrometers are more commonly associated with life science applications, there are some mass spectrometry (MS) techniques that are specifically designed for surface science applications.
Market Profile: Terahertz Spectroscopy
At the fringe of the infrared spectrum is the terahertz region, which until recently was not significantly utilized for spectroscopy.
Market Profile: Raman Spectroscopy in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Raman spectroscopy has developed into a key analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry.
Market Profile: Infrared Microscopy and Imaging
Infrared (IR) microscopy includes both conventional microscope systems and more advanced imaging systems, which are used in two ways.
Market Profile: Used IR and NIR Spectroscopy Instrumentation
Market Profile: Used IR and NIR Spectroscopy Instrumentation
Market Profile: Biophotometers
Market Profile: Biophotometers
Market Profile: Portable Molecular Spectroscopy in Biopharma
Portable molecular spectroscopy techniques used in the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries consist of Raman, infrared (IR), and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy.
Market Profile: Photodiode-Array UV–vis Spectroscopy
Photodiode-array (PDA) UV–vis spectrophotometers offer an alternative to conventional scanning UV–vis instruments and potentially great benefits to a certain subset of end-users. Although it is not a high growth market, it should remain a sizeable market for many years to come.
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Mass Spectrometry
Simultaneous Determination of Methylxanthines and Cotinine in Human Plasma by Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by LC–MS-MS
A multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the analysis of methylxanthines (caffeine and its metabolites) and cotinine in human plasma.
Large-Scale Targeted Protein Quantification Using Wide Selected-Ion Monitoring Data-Independent Acquisition
This article describes the development of a new data-independent acquisition (DIA) workflow for protein quantification that uses a mass spectrometer that combines three types of mass analyzers to achieve lower limits of detection (LOD), higher sensitivity, more accurate quantitative results, wider dynamic range, and better reproducibility than existing high-resolution accurate-mass (HRAM) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) DIA workflows.
Application of Ambient Sampling Portable Mass Spectrometry Toward On-Site Screening of Clandestine Drug Operations
Worldwide trends in illicit drug use and production have shifted toward an increase in synthetic analogues and the emergence of new variations in their manufacture.
Unraveling the Links Between Diet and Human Health Using LC–MS-MS
We recently spoke to Gary Duncan and Wendy Russell of the Rowett Institute of Nutrition & Health in Aberdeen, Scotland, about the significance of phytochemical bioavailability to human health and the important role of liquid chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) in their research.
GC–MS Analysis of an Herbal Medicinal Remedy to Identify Potential Toxic Compounds
In most countries, herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are introduced into the market without proper scientific evaluation or enforced safety and toxicological studies.
Current Trends in Mass Spectrometry: July 2014
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from July 29, 2014.
A New Mass Spectrometry Method for Analyzing Complex Samples
This interview with Steven J. Ray, an Associate Scientist in the Department of Chemistry at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, discusses his work with a new form of mass spectrometry (MS) for analyzing complex samples.
Determination of Corrosion Inhibitor–Lubricity Improver in Jet Fuels by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Military jet fuel (JP-8) is very similar to commercial jet fuel (Jet A) except for the presence of three additives, fuel system icing inhibitor, corrosion inhibitor–lubricity improver (CI-LI), and antistatic additive, which are added to improve characteristics of JP-8.
Analyzing Synthetic Cathinones Using Direct Sample Analysis Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Direct sample analysis coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) may be effective at analyzing synthetic cathinones, especially for qualitative analysis, because it does not require potentially tedious sample preparation.
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Mass Spectrometry Forum Column
Eponymous Mass Spectrometry: The Brubaker Prefilter and Kendrick Mass
An important method of recognition in the scientific community is to use an individual's name in a description of the contribution, known as an eponymous tribute. Mass spectrometry showcases a number of inventions named after the inventor. Here, we explain two: the Brubaker prefilter and Kendrick mass.
The Standard Definition of the Kilogram: A Grave Matter
A close look at the distinct definitions of mass and current research and proposals for redefining the kilogram in terms of natural constants
More Ways to Make Ions
The basics of a few "less often seen" ionization methods are described.
Those Ions Know What They Are Doing: Part II
Here, we expand on some of the central tenets of models introduced in part I and describe the transition state invoked in unimolecular dissociation reactions.
Those Ions Know What They Are Doing, Part I
A discussion of ion behavior, reaction, and logical patterns under various conditions
Organic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry
Ionization strategies and themes first developed in organic secondary ion mass spectrometry underlie many modern MS methods. Here's how it works.
Managing Mass Spectrometric Data
Aspects of integrated data management specifically for mass spectrometric data are explored, including spectral dataset size, laboratory documents, and requirements for archiving and sharing research data.
Detecting Ions in Mass Spectrometers with the Faraday Cup
The Faraday cup has been associated with mass spectrometry since the first instruments were assembled and continues to be used today. Here's how it works.
Consequences of Finite Ion Lifetimes in Mass Spectrometry
Consequences of Finite Ion Lifetimes in Mass Spectrometry As we construct more-complex instruments that process packets of ions in time and space, the issue of ion lifetimes is becoming more important.
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Molecular Spectroscopy Workbench Column
Raman Spectra of Metal Oxides
Metal oxides often occur in crystals where there are no molecular units. Here, we provide an introduction to the concepts that need to be understood when analyzing metal oxides in materials such as paint, ceramic pigments, corrosion films, catalysts, and minerals.
Headspace Raman Spectroscopy
We examine vapor-phase Raman spectroscopy through the acquisition of spectra from gas molecules confined to the headspace.
Raman Microscopy for Detecting Counterfeit Drugs — A Study of the Tablets Versus the Packaging
Results of tablet matching measurements and characterization of packaging are presented.
Practical Group Theory and Raman Spectroscopy, Part II: Application of Polarization
Polarized Raman spectra are presented along with a discussion of the association of the symmetry species of the normal vibrational mode and the depolarization ratio of Raman scattering.
Practical Group Theory and Raman Spectroscopy, Part I: Normal Vibrational Modes
The application of group theory for practical use in laboratory vibrational spectroscopy is examined.
Considerations of Grating Selection in Optimizing a Raman Spectrograph
The physics that determine how gratings and spectrographs work are summarized in simple terms for new users of Raman equipment.
Raman Imaging of Silicon Structures
What exactly is a "Raman image" and how is it rendered? The authors explain those points, and demonstrate the use of Raman imaging for the characterization of thin-film and ion-implanted silicon structures. High spectral resolution makes it possible to resolve or contrast the substrate silicon and polysilicon film in Raman images and thus aids in the chemical or physical differentiation of spectrally similar materials.
Resonance Enhancement of Raman Spectroscopy: Friend or Foe?
The presence of electronic transitions in the visible part of the spectrum can provide enormous enhancement of Raman signals.
Raman Spectroscopy of Oil Shale
Characterizing oil shale, particularly black shale consisting of kerogen, with Raman spectroscopy
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Near-IR Spectroscopy
Overview of High-Efficiency Transmission Gratings for Molecular Spectroscopy
This article provides a basic overview of the capabilities of transmission gratings optimized for molecular spectroscopy.
Scattering Impact Analysis and Correction for Leaf Biochemical Parameter Estimation Using Vis–NIR Spectroscopy
Simulated leaf spectral data were generated to analyze scattering impact and then compared to experimental data to validate the conclusions of the simulation.
Miniature Optical Spectrometers: The Art of the Possible, Part IV: New Near-Infrared Technologies and Spectrometers
Part II of this series described many of the miniature optical technologies that were developed as a result of the telecommunications boom, and Part III covered conventional small near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Here, in Part IV, we bring those themes together and see how the massive investment in telecommunications, microelectro- mechanical systems (MEMS), and micro-opto-electro-mechanical (MOEMS) is starting to impact NIR spectroscopy.
NIR Spectroscopy -- A Noninvasive Mind-Reader?
Canadian researchers at the Bloorview Research Institute (Toronto, ON, Canada) and the University of Toronto have developed a way to use optical imaging to decode preference by measuring the intensity of near-infrared light absorbed in brain tissue.
Hubble Finds Hidden Exoplanet
Using a powerful new image-processing technique, researchers at the University of Toronto (Ontario, Canada) have identified an exoplanet in images taken in 1998 with the Hubble Space Telescope's Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS).
Mind-Controlled Robots Using NIR Spectroscopy
Japan's Honda Research Institute and precision-equipment manufacturer Shimadzu recently demonstrated a technology that allows humans to control a robot through thought alone.
Forensic Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Aging of Bloodstains
The authors discuss the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of a bloodstain, which can be critical in helping establish when a crime was committed.
Miniature Optical Spectrometers, Part III: Conventional and Laboratory Near-Infrared Spectrometers
In Part I of this series, we examined recently developed miniature mid-infrared spectrometers (1). In Part II, we surveyed micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS), and some of the photonics technologies developed for optical communications (2). Here, in Part III, we summarize some of the conventional approaches to miniaturizing near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers, and in Part IV, we will bring these themes together and see how MOEMS and telecommunications photonics are poised to revolutionize NIR spectroscopy with a new generation of miniature instruments.
Miniature NIR Spectrometers: Designed for Harsh Environments
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New Techniques
Portable FT-IR and Raman Spectroscopy for Explosives Identification
This article discusses instruments that can be used in the field to rapidly and accurately identify various explosives and their precursors.
Rapid Field Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals Using a Hand-Portable GC–TMS System
In this article, methods developed for rapid, automated detection of CWAs and TICs using a low thermal mass capillary gas chromatograph coupled to a toroidal ion trap mass spectrometer (TMS) are presented.
Chemical Warfare Agents and Use of Thermal Desorption–GC–MS to Achieve Improved Trace-Level Detection
This article discusses the analysis of a wide range of CWAs at current exposure limits and describes a number of recent beneficial developments in TD and associated analytical technologies for the identification and quantification of CWAs at these levels.
Single-Particle Spectroscopy on Conducting Polymer-Fullerene Composite Materials for Application in Organic Photovoltaic Devices
The study of the photophysical and optoelectronic properties of a functioning conducting polymer device is complicated and is hampered by the complex nanostructure and morphology of the conducting polymer materials in these devices. Here we discuss an approach to investigate this issue in terms of bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices.
What's New in Testing Pharmaceuticals for Metals: Metals and Limits in Limbo
This article covers the changes so far to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) chapters <232> and <233>, the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), impending changes, and options for preparing for those changes.
Analysis of Solar Silicon Using High-Throughput Spectroscopy
Infrared spectroscopy is a powerful analysis technique used in the semiconductor industry to ensure the quality of silicon and silicon wafers. The authors discuss the use of an inexpensive, lab-based system to measure carbon and oxygen concentrations in silicon to the level of precision required by the solar silicon industry.
New Technique for Detection of Carbon Nanotubes in the Body
New research being conducted at the University of Arkansas is demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy can be used to detect and monitor circulating carbon nanotubes in vivo and in real time.
Acronyms in Mass Spectrometry
The list of acronyms in mass spectrometry published regularly here reflects the writings and conversations of mass spectrometrists, who use a variety of acronyms to describe particular experiments or applications. New applications, with new audiences, bring new technical jargon.
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Optics
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: A Closer Look at the Capabilities of LIBS
Dr. Richard R. Hark, a professor in the Department of Chemistry at Juniata College in Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, discusses his work with LIBS in applications such as forensic science, conflict minerals, and geochemical fingerprinting.
LIBS Basics, Part II: Hardware
The choices for LIBS hardware are discussed in detail, particularly lasers and spectrometers, and the trade-offs between cost, size, and performance are illustrated.
Can You See Me Now?
Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have developed light-detecting fibers that act like a flexible camera when woven into a web.
Terahertz Pulsed Imaging for Nondestructive Testing of Pharmaceutical Products
In this column, Guest Columnist Philip Taday explores the use of terahertz spectroscopy for tablet coating analysis.
How Will Distributed Sensing Inspire Changes in Optical-Sensing R&D?
Improvements in engineering and manufacturing processes and tools have rapidly lowered the cost to make products, and to distribute them. The next generation of optical sensing technologies will offer a framework for the creation and testing of new business models based upon the distribution of knowledge and service. In fact, this concept of "distributed sensing" already has emerged in networked systems monitoring various aspects of the environment.
Technology Forum: Optics and Lasers
This month's Technology Forum looks at the topic of optics and lasers and the trends and issues surrounding it. Joining us for this discussion are Rob Morris, Director of Marketing, Ocean Optics, Inc.; and Phil Taday, Applications Group Leader, fromTeraView Limited.
Prisms
A prism is an optical component that serves one of two major functions: it disperses light, or it modifies the direction (and sometimes polarization) of light. In some cases, a prism has more than one function, and they are discussed here.
Advantages of High OD Filters to Microscopy
The author discusses the use of filters in optical microscopy and the advantages that have been gained as a result of developments in filter technology.
Lenses
In the last installment of this column, I discussed prisms. In this installment, we will consider their curved cousins.
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Pharmaceutical Applications
What's New in Testing Pharmaceuticals for Metals: Metals and Limits in Limbo
This article covers the changes so far to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) chapters <232> and <233>, the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), impending changes, and options for preparing for those changes.
An interview with Don Pivonka
Don Pivonka is senior principal chemist at Incyte Pharmaceuticals and winner of the 2012 Charles Mann Award for applied Raman Spectroscopy
Bioprocess Monitoring with Ultrasound-Enhanced ATR Mid-IR Spectroscopy
Bernhard Lendl and Cosima Koch of the Vienna University of Technology have developed a new method for on-line monitoring of fermentations using mid-infrared spectroscopy.
Detection and Sourcing of Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Products and Consumer Goods
The authors discuss the use of vibrational spectroscopy to differentiate an authentic article from a counterfeit one throughout a product's lifecycle, from component receipt at the site of manufacture, to product receipt by the end user.
Rapid Identification of Illicit and Prescription Drugs Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy
The authors discuss the use of FT-NIR to identify several different types of drug formulations.
Synthesis and Structural Elucidation of Impurities in Ramipril Tablets
In this article, the authors take a look at the identification, synthesis, and characterization of impurities in Ramipril tablets.
Dosing Vehicle Removal in Discovery Phase Pharmacokinetic Studies Using High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry
This article describes the ability to increase the sensitivity for a target compound in the presence of high-level background impurities by removing the dosing vehicle using a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry gas-phase separation before mass spectrometry analysis.
ICP-MS Speciation Analysis: Three Roles of Selenium
The element selenium plays three distinct roles in biological processes, functioning in turn as a toxicant, a chemopreventive agent, and a heavy metal antagonist. This article discusses current research associated with each role, and how ICP-MS can be employed to better understand and utilize selenium's properties.
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Process Control and Analysis
The Use of Process Analytical Technology in Biofuels Production
Biofuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol are now the main alternatives to fossil fuels in one of the most pollutant human activities: transportation. The authors report on the use of process analytical technology for mapping raw materials, fingerprinting process trajectories, and calibrating for the most important quality specifications, both for individual chemical and physical attributes or for combined quality attributes, thusleading to more consistent and economically viable processes.
Bioprocess Monitoring with Ultrasound-Enhanced ATR Mid-IR Spectroscopy
Bernhard Lendl and Cosima Koch of the Vienna University of Technology have developed a new method for on-line monitoring of fermentations using mid-infrared spectroscopy.
Process Monitoring: In-line, At-line, or Slip-stream?
As process analytical technology (PAT) moves out of the laboratory and into the plant and to the process stream itself, the question arises, "What is the best way to collect data from stream samples?" The author shows that this depends upon both the nature of the stream and the components to be measured.
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Product News
Product Resources
Product Resources
Products
Products
VWR, PerkinElmer Expand Chromatography, Spectroscopy Products Deal
PerkinElmer announced that it has signed a new distribution agreement with VWR International.
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Quality Control/Assurance
USP <1058> Analytical Instrument Qualification and the Laboratory Impact
In this column, Bob McDowall discusses the impact of USP general chapter 1058 on the spectroscopy laboratory.
Terahertz Waves for Quality Control
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have created a technique that uses terahertz waves to measure structural properties in integrated circuits.
Meeting Quality Control Requirements in the Routine Inorganic Laboratory
PerkinElmer, Inc.
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Raman Spectroscopy
Improving Drug Formulation with Raman and IR Spectroscopy
The physicochemical properties of drugs are often very diverse and challenging to analyze. Spectroscopy recently spoke with Dr. Lynne Taylor of the Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy at Purdue University, and the 2014 Coblentz Society Craver Award winner, about her on-going research using Raman and IR spectroscopy to study drugs and drug excipients - and the interactions of the two.
Key Elements of Confocal Raman Microscopy for High-Resolution Imaging
The sensitivity of a high-resolution Raman imaging system is crucial to the quality of the acquired information.
High-Speed TERS Imaging: The Latest Achievements in nano-Raman Spectroscopy
This article presents developments in tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) that make possible nanoscale imaging of chemical and physical properties of graphene and other carbon species: Innovative integration of technologies brings high-throughput optics and high-resolution scanning for high-speed imaging without interferences between the techniques.
Detection of Melamine and Other Harmful Food Contaminants Using Gold Nanoparticles, Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, and Raster Orbital Scanning
Melamine is a dangerous substance when it is used to increase the apparent protein content of food. In this article, the use of novel gold nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurements with raster orbital scanning sampling is described for the detection of melamine and other food contaminants.
Raman Microscopy for Detecting Counterfeit Drugs — A Study of the Tablets Versus the Packaging
Results of tablet matching measurements and characterization of packaging are presented.
The Use of Portable and Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for Forensic Investigations
The Raman technique is gaining widespread acceptance as an investigative tool for forensic applications.
Overview of High-Efficiency Transmission Gratings for Molecular Spectroscopy
This article provides a basic overview of the capabilities of transmission gratings optimized for molecular spectroscopy.
Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Fundamental Research and Practical Applications
An interview with 2014 Charles Mann Award winner Richard P. Van Duyne, the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois.
Detecting Leaks from Carbon Sequestration Using LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy
Dustin McIntyre, of the National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy in Morgantown, West Virginia, has been exploring the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to measure subsurface gases, liquids, and solids at subsurface conditions.
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Regulatory Issues
What's New in Testing Pharmaceuticals for Metals: Metals and Limits in Limbo
This article covers the changes so far to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) chapters <232> and <233>, the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the European Pharmacopoeia (EP), impending changes, and options for preparing for those changes.
USP <1058> Analytical Instrument Qualification and the Laboratory Impact
In this column, Bob McDowall discusses the impact of USP general chapter 1058 on the spectroscopy laboratory.
Validation of Spectrometry Software: The Proactive Use of a Traceability Matrix in Spectrometry Software Validation, Part I: Principles
Tracing requirements from a user requirements specification throughout the life cycle is not only a very effective business tool to save time and effort in validation projects but also a regulatory expectation. This first installment of a two-part column series looks at the principles of a traceability matrix.
First Regulatory Limit for Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water Awaited in California
The California Department of Public Health has proposed to establish the first regulatory limit in the United States for hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) in drinking water. The proposed Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) sets the limit for hexavalent chromium at 10 parts per billion. California, like those of other states and United States federal government, currently only regulates total chromium levels.
Meeting Requirements of the EPA Contract Laboratory Program ILM05.3 Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: An Update
This report demonstrates that it is possible to meet and exceed EPA "statement of work" requirements using ICP-MS.
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Spectrochemistry
The Chemical Analysis Process
The authors present an overview of the chemical analysis process.
The Laws of Spectrochemistry
In this article, the authors discuss the basic premises that underlie the science of spectrochemistry, which has been humorously referred to as a "black art" by some.
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Spectroscopy Web Seminar Update
Spectroscopy Web Seminars
Test
Spectroscopy Begins Offering New Web Seminars
Press Release Announing the Addition of the New Spectroscopy Web Seminars
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Statistical Analysis
Interelement Corrections in Spectrochemistry
This tutorial reviews the mathematical models for dealing with interelement effects in optical emission and X-ray fluorescence spectrochemical analysis. Line overlaps and matrix effect corrections are examined.
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TOF-MS
Market Profile: MALDI Imaging
The adoption of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for imaging applications is a major recent development in the market. Applications lie squarely in the life sciences area, being primarily in histopathology. The market for MALDI imaging products already accounts for a significant and rapidly growing portion of the aftermarket for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
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Technology Forum Column
Raman Spectroscopy Expands Its Scope
With improvements in instrumentation, Raman spectroscopy continues to expand its range of applications to diverse areas of materials analysis and research.
FT-IR Technology Forum
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from September 18, 2012.
FT-IR Technology Forum
The well-established technique of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy offers analytical capabilities for diverse applications, and chemometrics and spectral interpretation software are important elements of the technique.
Technology Forum: Raman
Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive technique that requires little or no sample preparation. Participants in this forum are Tom Tague, of Bruker Optics, and Robert Chimenti, of B&W Tek.
Mass Spectrometry
The power and versatility of mass spectrometry (MS) make it an analytical technique of choice in the laboratory. Participants in this Technology Forum are Kevin A. Schug of the University of Texas at Arlington and Michael P. Balogh of Waters Corporation.
NIR Technology Forum
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is used in various application areas, including pharmaceutical analysis, medical diagnostics, and food and agrochemical analysis. Participants in this Technology Forum are Edwin Weusthof of Avantes BV, John Richmond of Bruker Optics, and Yvette Mattley of Ocean Optics.
Raman Spectroscopy
Raman spectroscopy has been put to good use in applications such as nanomaterials development as well as in quality control laboratories.
X-ray Fluorescence: Simplified Instrument Operation Brings Opportunities in Industry, and a Need for Education
Industrial use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is on the rise, often involving workers who are not spectroscopists. This brings advantages, as well as a need for more XRF training.
Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used for real-world applications ranging from mining sample analysis to threat analysis to industrial process control. Participants in this Technology Forum are Benjamin W. Smith of the University of Florida, Andrzej Miziolek of the US Army Research Laboratory, and Steve Buckley of Photon Machines, Inc.
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The Baseline Column
Spectroscopy and the Atomic Number
The history of how the atomic number came to be
Logger Rhythm
A logarithm is a mathematical function that shows up in some forms of spectroscopy. Understanding what it is can give us a better appreciation for its function in our fields.
Why Is the Sky Blue?
A detailed look at what makes the sky appear blue in color, using Rayleigh scattering, Maxwell's equations, and the Mie theory.
Fluorescent Lights
A look at how fluorescent lights are spectroscopically different from the old-fashioned incandescent light bulb.
Maxwell's Equations, Part VII
Here, Maxwell's fourth equation of electrodynamics and how light is described in terms of Maxwell's four mathematical expressions is examined.
Maxwell's Equations, Part VI
Results are generalized from the last installment and considerations are made for how it applies to one of Maxwell's equations.
Maxwell's Equations, Part V
Here, we continue the discussion of electromagnetism and Maxwell's second equation.
Maxwell's Equations, Part IV
A discussion of magnetism, leading into Maxwell's second equation
Maxwell's Equations, Part III
Here's the fundamental calculus you need to understand Maxwell's first equation
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UV
Overview of High-Efficiency Transmission Gratings for Molecular Spectroscopy
This article provides a basic overview of the capabilities of transmission gratings optimized for molecular spectroscopy.
Scattering Impact Analysis and Correction for Leaf Biochemical Parameter Estimation Using Vis–NIR Spectroscopy
Simulated leaf spectral data were generated to analyze scattering impact and then compared to experimental data to validate the conclusions of the simulation.
Pittcon 2011 New Product Review
Our yearly review of the hottest products at Pittcon
An Integration of Modified Uninformative Variable Elimination and Wavelet Packet Transform for Variable Selection
The wavelet packet transform (WPT) combined with the modified uninformative variable elimination (MUVE) method (WPT–MUVE) is proposed to select variables for multivariate calibration of spectral data.
Spectroscopy in Space: Hubble and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph
In an upcoming spacewalk, shuttle astronauts will swap the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) device for the new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS).
UV-Vis Diffuse Reflectance of Thermochromic Materials Including Color-Changing Paint
Some powders and rough surfaced solids change color as a function of temperature, a phenomenon known as thermochromism. Such phenomena can be effectively studied by UV-Visible spectroscopy in combination with a diffuse reflection accessory equipped with temperature-controlled reaction chamber, as demonstrated here with a thermal paint.
Liquid Matrices for Analyses by UV-MALDI Mass Spectrometry
Data are presented for a pH-adjustable liquid UV-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) matrix for mass spectrometry analysis. The liquid matrix system possesses high analytical sensitivity within the same order of magnitude as that achievable by the commonly used solid UV-MALDI matrices but with improved spot homogeneity and reproducibility. The pH of the matrix has been adjusted, achieving an on-target pH range of 3.5?8.6, which has allowed for the performance of a tryptic digest within the diluted pH-optimized liquid matrix.
Improved Performance and Functionality in UV-Visible Measurements
Market Profile: UV/Vis/NIR
While the overall laboratory UV and Visible spectroscopy market was worth well over $700 million in 2007, the UV/Vis/NIR segment represented less than 10% of it. UV/Vis/NIR instruments utilize multiple detectors to cover a broader spectrum of analysis, and typically are among the highest-end systems in the UV-Vis market.
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Vibrational Spectroscopy
Call for Papers: Raman supplement (June 2014)
Spectroscopy magazine is seeking contributed manuscripts for its June 2014 supplement on Raman spectroscopy.
Nanometer-Scale Studies Using Tip Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
Volker Deckert, the winner of the 2013 Charles Mann Award, is advancing the use of tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) to push the lateral resolution of vibrational spectroscopy well below the Abbe limit, to achieve single-molecule sensitivity. Because the tip can be moved with sub-nanometer precision, structural information with unmatched spatial resolution can be achieved without the need of specific labels.
An interview with Don Pivonka
Don Pivonka is senior principal chemist at Incyte Pharmaceuticals and winner of the 2012 Charles Mann Award for applied Raman Spectroscopy
Biomedical Analysis at the Nanometer Scale with SERS
Part of a new podcast series presented in collaboration with the Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies (FACSS), in connection with SciX 2012 ? the Great Scientific Exchange, the North American conference (39th Annual) of FACSS.
Raman Spectroscopy for Measurements in Deep Space and the Deep Ocean
An interview with S. Michael Angel, winner of the 2012 William F. Meggers Award and a 2011 FACSS Innovation Award.
Duncan Graham Named Recipient of Coblentz Society's 2012 Craver Award
The Coblentz Society and the Federation of Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy Societies (FACSS) recently named Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde (Glasgow, Scotland) as the recipient of the Coblentz Society?s 2012 Craver Award.
Detection and Sourcing of Counterfeit Pharmaceutical Products and Consumer Goods
The authors discuss the use of vibrational spectroscopy to differentiate an authentic article from a counterfeit one throughout a product's lifecycle, from component receipt at the site of manufacture, to product receipt by the end user.
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X-Ray Spectroscopy
Rapid Determination of Trace Metals in Oil Using Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy
Determination of trace metals in oil and petroleum typically is based on ICP-OES methods, requiring signficant sample preparation and expensive instrumentation. This article presents an alternative method, based on the use of a handheld energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analyzer, that involves minimal sample preparation, uses authentic standards for calibration, gives low parts-per-million detection limits, and provides significant time and cost savings.
Emerging Technology Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy Are Solving Real-World Application Problems
A look at ICP–MS, ICP–OES, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the areas of research and development, marketing, application, and use of these techniques.
X-ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Analysis of Sm3+ in Lithium Calcium Silicate
Here, Li2CaSiO4:Sm3+ reddish orange phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method and examined by spectroscopic methods.
The Top 13 Articles from Spectroscopy in 2013
Everyone loves a list, and the editors of Spectroscopy are no exception! In 2013, Spectroscopy covered a wide array of topics throughout the year to bring you the most relevant information for your work, on topics ranging from selecting the right ICP-MS system to deciding which Raman technique is right for you, from our annual salary survey to calibration transfer. Here is a list of 13 popular articles and columns from 2013
Analysis of Nanoparticles in Aerosols
Click here to view the complete Wavelength newsletter from November 12, 2013.
X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Part I: The Educational Essentials
The main areas of training necessary for a good foundation in the analytical methodology of XRF spectroscopy are discussed.
XPS Surface Characterization of Disposable Laboratory Gloves and the Transfer of Glove Components to Other Surfaces
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) can be used to determine the contaminants present on laboratory gloves and to evaluate the type and amount of contamination transfer from gloves to other surfaces.
The Contribution of Raman Microscopy to the Characterization of Nanomaterials
Raman has a unique capability to characterize nanoscale materials that are between crystalline and amorphous.
X-ray Analysis Goes to Mars
This November, NASA's Mars Science Laboratory will be launched on a mission to Mars that will deploy a new rover, called "Curiosity." Curiosity will include several analytical instruments, including "CheMin," which uses X-ray diffraction (XRD) and also has limited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) capabilities.
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Headlines from LCGC North America and Chromatography Online
The Benefits of Okra
UCT NA - Determination of Pesticide Residues in Tea: An AOAC Collaborative Study
Rapid detection of chemicals emitted from museum display cases
Saccharide tracers in aerosols
Investigation of Synthetic Compounds in Drug Discovery by Integrated HPLC and LC/MS
Click here