Interview of the Month

ICP-MS for Environmental and Bioimaging Research

Inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become a successful approach for fast, multielemental analysis, and analysts are applying it to a wide range of analyses, including geochemical, environmental, forensic, and medical studies. Uwe Karst is a Professor and Chair of the Analytical Chemistry Department at the University of Münster in Germany, and he and his group use ICP-MS for applications such as analyzing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in river water, speciation analysis in a study of a disease related to renal failure, and examining the distribution of a labeling compound in mouse tumor cells and macrophages. He recently spoke to us about this work.

FT-IR

In Situ FTIR Analysis of Soils for Forensic Applications

By A.H. Jean Robertson, Angela M. Main, Lucinda J. Robinson, Lorna A. Dawson

Although handheld FT-IR spectrometers now make it possible to carry out field-based FT-IR analysis of soils at a crime scene, reliable and tested protocols are not yet available for such work. Here, we discuss sampling options and describe tests of a methodology that is being eveloped for in situ FT-IR analysis of soil samples.

Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Monitor the Curing Reaction of Silicone Adhesives

By N. Pemberger, L.K.H. Bittner, C. W. Huck

Quality control of silicones used in medicinal implants is challenging, and traditional methods waste a lot of raw material. In this study, NIR spectroscopy has been used to replace the traditional rheometric measurements, with excellent results. The NIR method enables improved quality control and a more economical process.

Applications of Infrared Multiple Angle Incidence Resolution Spectrometry

By David Drapcho, Takeshi Hasegawa

Infrared multiple angle incidence resolution spectroscopy (IR MAIRS) provides a powerful new tool to determine the molecular structure and orientation in a thin film on an IR-transparent substrate. The MAIRS technique replaces a tedious, and sometimes impossible, combination of sample preparation and analysis of identical films on both transparent and reflective substrates.

Macro ATR-FT-IR Spectroscopic Imaging of Dynamic Processes

By Sergei G. Kazarian, James A. Kimber

Macro attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopic imaging is a powerful and underutilized tool. This article presents an overview of approaches and opportunities for using this method to study dynamic processes such as diffusion, sorption, crystallization, and dissolution.

Resonance-Enhanced Nanoscale IR Spectroscopy of Ultrathin Films and Monolayers on Metals

By Kevin Kjoller, Curtis Marcott, Craig B. Prater, Honghua Yang, Mikhail A. Belkin, Feng Lu, Mingzhou Jin

Resonance-enhanced atomic force microscopy (AFM)–infrared (IR) is a new technique that couples an atomic force microscope with a pulsed tunable IR laser source to provide high spatial resolution chemical analysis of samples as thin as a monolayer. The AFM probe tip acts as a small local detector of the thermal expansion of the sample caused by the absorption of the monochromatic IR radiation.

Raman

Direct identification of clinically relevant microorganisms on solid culture media by Raman spectroscopy

By Eunah Lee, HORIBA Scientific, I. Espagnona, D. Ostrovskii, R. Mathey, M. Dupoy, P. Joly, A. Novelli-Rousseau, F. Pinston, O. Gal, F. Mallard, D. Leroux

Evaluation of the discrimination power of Raman spectroscopy in decreasing turnaround time in clinical diagnosis, when analyzing microcolonies from nine bacterial and one yeast species directly on solid culture medium after a shortened incubation time.

Statistical, morphological and chemical particle characterization of cellulose nitrate filters for QC

By Eunah Lee, HORIBA Scientific

Statistical and morphological analysis of particles on a filter has been complemented by chemical analysis based on Raman spectroscopy using the ParticleFinder tool, allowing further insight into the particle composition and its origin within a production line.

Raman Spectroscopy Applied to the Lithium-ion Battery Analysis

By Renata Lewandowska, Miyoko Okada, Tomoko Numata, HORIBA Scientific

The application note explains how the Raman Spectroscopy can be helpful in the analysis of cathodes and anodes in Li-ion batteries.

Combining Raman Imaging, Mass Spectrometry Imaging, and AFM

By Spectroscopy Editors

Imaging techniques using vibrational spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), and atomic force microscopy have all been advancing and gaining momentum in recent years. There is great potential power in these imaging techniques, particularly in the biomedical field. Thomas Bocklitz of at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena is working to better harness the power of these techniques by combining them.

Is Raman Spectroscopy Ready for Clinical Use?

By Spectroscopy Editors

Recent reports of the successful use of Raman spectroscopy for important biomedical applications are quite exciting. These applications include imaging for disease diagnosis, including significant improvements for endoscopic probes, and identification of microorganisms. But is it truly practical and feasible to implement Raman technologies in a clinical environment?

UV-vis

Overview of High-Efficiency Transmission Gratings for Molecular Spectroscopy

By Thomas Rasmussen

This article provides a basic overview of the capabilities of transmission gratings optimized for molecular spectroscopy.

Scattering Impact Analysis and Correction for Leaf Biochemical Parameter Estimation Using Vis–NIR Spectroscopy

By Qianxuan Zhang, Qingbo Li, Guangjun Zhang

Simulated leaf spectral data were generated to analyze scattering impact and then compared to experimental data to validate the conclusions of the simulation.

Pittcon 2011 New Product Review

By Howard Mark

Our yearly review of the hottest products at Pittcon

An Integration of Modified Uninformative Variable Elimination and Wavelet Packet Transform for Variable Selection

By Di Wu, Xiaojing Chen, Yong He

The wavelet packet transform (WPT) combined with the modified uninformative variable elimination (MUVE) method (WPT–MUVE) is proposed to select variables for multivariate calibration of spectral data.

Analysis of Fructose, Glycine, and Triglycine Using HPLC UV-vis Detection and Evaporative Light-Scattering Detection

By A.B. de Haan, R. Wijntje, H.A.J.M. Bevers

The development of a method for the simultaneous determination of glycine, triglycine and fructose using UV–vis and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) is described. This was necessary as part of a research project dealing with the recovery of functional peptides from aqueous streams on an industrial scale using adsorption or related technologies. Fructose is barely detectable by UV–vis as it lacks detectable functionalities, while glycine and triglycine are both UV–vis sensitive. An NH2 phase was chosen as a column and separation was obtained within seven minutes on a 250 X 4.6 mm column. Limits of detection are approximately 40 mg fructose/L, 4 mg glycine/L and 0.05 mg triglycine/L. Calibration functions are linear in a range of 40–1400 mg/L for fructose, 5–200 mg/L for glycine and 0.5–70 mg/L for triglycine.

Peer-Reviewed Articles

Application of SERS to the Determination of Butylated Hydroxyanisole in Edible and Essential Oils

By Magdalena Wrona, Jesús Salafranca, Massimiliano Rocchia, Cristina Nerín

A new method was developed for BHA determination in edible and essential oils by SERS Raman microscopy, without the need for any sample handling or pretreatment.

Molecular Characterization of Gadolinium-Doped Zinc Telluride Films by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

By Dale L. Perry, Zhixun Ma, Andrew Olson, Erik Topp

Zinc telluride films doped with gadolinium (ZnTe:Gd)—made by laser ablation and deposition—have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the molecular species of the elements in the material and their presence as intentionally formed contaminants.

An Interlaboratory Comparison Study for the Determination of Arsenic and Arsenic Species in Rice, Kelp, and Apple Juice

By Michelle L. Briscoe, Tamas M. Ugrai, Joel Creswell, Annie T. Carter

An interlaboratory comparison study for the measurement of arsenic species in rice,kelp, and apple juice was carried out.

Differentiation of Inks Used for Seals by Confocal Raman Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy

By Jungang Lv, Shuo Liu, Yuanyuan Li Jimin Feng, Yong Liu, Songdong Zhou

The analysis of seals, mostly via the ink types, can provide evidence to authenticate the related documents and can play a key role in legal cases. In the present study, a method to discriminate red seal inks using Raman microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was developed.

Surface Polaritons in Zinc Phosphide

By E. Venger, T. Barlas, K. Shportko

Dispersion of surface polaritons in zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) single crystals is presented in this article for the first time. Surface polaritons in Zn3P2 were excited using the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) method.

News

Growing Applications of XRF Spectroscopy: In the Field, the Factory, and the Lab

As a fast, quasi-nondestructive analytical technique, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is useful for a wide range of applications. To get a sense of the current breadth of XRF’s use and its potential growth in new areas, we asked a panel of experts to comment on the most important application areas for XRF, including the challenges involved and how XRF competes with other techniques.

Thermo Fisher Scientific Proteomics Facility for Disease Target Discovery Opens at Gladstone Institutes

The Thermo Fisher Scientific Proteomics Facility for Disease Target Discovery opened at the Gladstone Institutes (San Francisco, California) on June 24, as part of a collaboration between Thermo Fisher (San Jose, California), Gladstone, the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and QB3 (San Francisco, California), to accelerate targeted proteomics research using advanced mass spectrometry techniques.

Optical Society, SPIE, and Materials Research Society Name Congressional Science and Engineering Fellows

The Congressional Fellows program aims to bring technical and scientific backgrounds and perspectives to the decision-making process in Congress, and provide scientists with insight into the inner workings of the federal government.

ICP/ICP-MS

The Most Significant Advances in ICP-MS

By Laura Bush

In honor of Spectroscopy’s celebration of 30 years covering the latest developments in materials analysis, we asked experts to assess the current state of the art of six key spectroscopic techniques. Here, the experts weigh in on what they considered the most important advance in inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the last 5–10 years.

Analysis of the State of the Art: ICP-MS

By Laura Bush

In honor of Spectroscopy's celebration of 30 years covering the latest developments in materials analysis, we asked a panel of experts to assess the current state of the art of inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and to try to predict how the technology will develop in the future.

High-Resolution ICP-OES for the Determination of Trace Elements in a Rare Earth Element Matrix and in NdFeB Magnetic Materials

By Matthieu Chausseau, Hassanali Savadkouei, Zhaofen Li, Alice Stankova, Philippe Hunault

Rare earth elements (REEs) have become indispensable in many electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic applications because of their specific properties such as magnetism and phosphorescence, as well as their ability to both donate and accept electrons.

ICP Emission Spectrometry: Arsenic at 228 nm — Interferent or Analyte?

By Bernhard Radziuk, Joachim Nölte

This article compares several performance criteria such as full width at half maximum, background equivalent concentrations, limits of detection, purge requirements, and results for some substances for the "traditional" As lines at 188.979, 193.696, and 197.197 nm for the "new" line at 228.812 nm.

Improving ICP-MS Analysis of Samples Containing High Levels of Total Dissolved Solids

By Ed McCurdy, Wim Proper

A novel approach to handling samples with very high and variable levels of sample matrix is to use aerosol dilution, whereby the amount of sample aerosol that reaches the plasma is reduced by dilution with an additional argon gas stream.

Mass Spectrometry

Simultaneous Determination of Methylxanthines and Cotinine in Human Plasma by Solid-Phase Extraction Followed by LC–MS-MS

By Rossana Bossi, Bodil Hammer Bech

A multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the analysis of methylxanthines (caffeine and its metabolites) and cotinine in human plasma.

Large-Scale Targeted Protein Quantification Using Wide Selected-Ion Monitoring Data-Independent Acquisition

By Reiko Kiyonami, Vlad Zabrouskov, Andreas F.R. Hühmer, Sonia Ting, Michael Senko, Michael MacCoss, Jarrett Egertson

This article describes the development of a new data-independent acquisition (DIA) workflow for protein quantification that uses a mass spectrometer that combines three types of mass analyzers to achieve lower limits of detection (LOD), higher sensitivity, more accurate quantitative results, wider dynamic range, and better reproducibility than existing high-resolution accurate-mass (HRAM) tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) DIA workflows.

GC–MS Analysis of an Herbal Medicinal Remedy to Identify Potential Toxic Compounds

By Hang P. Nguyen, Irene W. Kimaru

In most countries, herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are introduced into the market without proper scientific evaluation or enforced safety and toxicological studies.

Application of Ambient Sampling Portable Mass Spectrometry Toward On-Site Screening of Clandestine Drug Operations

By Christopher C. Mulligan, Seth E. Hall

Worldwide trends in illicit drug use and production have shifted toward an increase in synthetic analogues and the emergence of new variations in their manufacture.

Unraveling the Links Between Diet and Human Health Using LC–MS-MS

By Spectroscopy Editors

We recently spoke to Gary Duncan and Wendy Russell of the Rowett Institute of Nutrition & Health in Aberdeen, Scotland, about the significance of phytochemical bioavailability to human health and the important role of liquid chromatography linked to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS-MS) in their research.