Spectroscopy-02-01-2006

The development of a method for the simultaneous determination of glycine, triglycine and fructose using UV–vis and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) is described. This was necessary as part of a research project dealing with the recovery of functional peptides from aqueous streams on an industrial scale using adsorption or related technologies. Fructose is barely detectable by UV–vis as it lacks detectable functionalities, while glycine and triglycine are both UV–vis sensitive. An NH2 phase was chosen as a column and separation was obtained within seven minutes on a 250 X 4.6 mm column. Limits of detection are approximately 40 mg fructose/L, 4 mg glycine/L and 0.05 mg triglycine/L. Calibration functions are linear in a range of 40–1400 mg/L for fructose, 5–200 mg/L for glycine and 0.5–70 mg/L for triglycine.

IR imaging provides a new tool for disease detection, revealing compositional and structural information in tissue previously not available with contrast staining.

Spectroscopy
Mass Spectrometry Forum

February 01, 2006

Part IV of this four-part series wraps up the discussion of mass calibration, covering the "new generation" attributes that have become apparent as researchers aim to meet the calibration demands of proteomics.

The concentration dependent influence of Na+ and K+ions on mass spectra of peptides is shown with human gastrin as a model peptide. With electrospray ionization the doubly charged protonated molecule ion [M+2H]2+ is normally the preferred ionization product. However, trace amounts of alkali metal ions already form clusters (adducts) with the peptide molecule, such as [M+H+Na]2+, which become dominating at higher concentrations. With Na+/K+ concentrations below 0.1 mg/kg (ppm) only a few clusters appear, which allow the correct doubly charged molecule ion to be assigned for a subsequent MS–MS experiment. With concentrations of 10 ppm and higher the alkali clusters become the most abundant peaks in the spectrum, and the absolute sensitivity is decreased by a factor of 5–10. Experiments were performed with water and water–methanol mixtures with a known Na+/K+ +content.

Spectroscopy

With the unprecendented attention paid to the subject of process analytical technoloy

Many important biological signals are triggered by the binding of a peptide hormone to its cognate receptor at the cell surface. Using stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy, the authors have been able to observe, in real time, ligand binding to epidermal growth factor receptors expressed at the surface of intact cells. This method allows for the measurement of kinetic association and dissociation rates with high data density in a native cellular environment, providing insights into the signal-initiation process in this system that have not been revealed through the determination of ligand-binding constants obtained by more traditional methods.

Spectroscopy

As process analytical technology (PAT) moves out of the laboratory and into the plant and to the process stream itself, the question arises, "What is the best way to collect data from stream samples?" The author shows that this depends upon both the nature of the stream and the components to be measured.

Spectroscopy

The element selenium plays three distinct roles in biological processes, functioning in turn as a toxicant, a chemopreventive agent, and a heavy metal antagonist. This article discusses current research associated with each role, and how ICP-MS can be employed to better understand and utilize selenium's properties.

Spectroscopy
Departments

February 01, 2006

GFS Chemicals uses its high purity acids to manufacture salts and solutions used in trace metal analysis.

Spectroscopy

Guest author John Coates describes a new, compact handheld Raman instrument.

Most of the 2.2 billion dollars increase in the 2006 federal research and development budget will go toward defense weapons development and human space exploration technologies, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.