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Volume 20, Issue 7
Spectroscopy previews products and sessions for attendees to see and participate in at the 54th Annual Denver X-Ray Conference, to be held August 1–5 in Colorado Springs, CO.
In 1951, the University of Denver held perhaps the world's first one-day symposium on the application of X-rays to the study of materials and the importance of X-rays in research. The Annual Conference on Applications of X-ray Analysis, as it was known, grew and continues to flourish as the world's leading forum for scientists working in the field of X-ray materials analysis. The Denver X-ray Conference (DXC) still provides a unique mixture of sessions on training and education, applications, and papers containing details about state-of-the-art techniques and future developments in X-ray analysis. Another important part of the meeting is the presence of leading manufacturers of X-ray equipment who exhibit their most recent offerings and have their technical people available to offer suggestions on how one might use their equipment to solve problems.
As a service to those planning on attending the conference, Spectroscopy presents the following preview of products scheduled to be on display at DXC 2005, as well as an overview of the courses, workshops, and lectures that will be offered during the five-day event.
While every effort has been made to present as comprehensive a listing as possible, this article cannot be considered a complete record of every product scheduled to be shown at the conference.
) PX4 combines a digital pulse processor, a power supply, a shaping amplifier, and an MCA. It is compatible with the company's XR-100 detectors and detectors from other manufacturers. The PX4 is software driven and has 24 programmable peaking times between 0.8–102 µs.
The S2 RANGER EDXRF spectrometer from Bruker AXS (www.bruker-axs.de) is characterized by its compact all-in-one design with an integrated touch screen, a printer, and a vacuum pump. Based upon Peltier-cooled detector technology, the spectrometer now also includes EQUA ALL, a universal calibration feature that, according to the company, automatically handles the corrections for all line overlaps without any adjustments.
Claisse's (www.claisse.com) automatic balance, TheAnt, is designed to eliminate weighing manipulations. According to the company, TheAnt allows users to automatically attain the sample/flux ratio with an accuracy of a tenth of a milligram. Designed for labs that prepare samples by fusion, TheAnt reportedly weighs at a rate of 30–60 samples per hour.
The Eagle III micro-XRF elemental analyzer from EDAX (www.edax.com) uses capillary optics, CCD video imaging cameras, and a motorized xyz stage for nondestructive small-spot analysis correlated with video imaging. Features include simultaneous detection of elements ranging from Na through U, and little or no sample preparation requirements. Typical applications include forensics, failure analysis, coating thickness-composition measurement, quality control, and chemical imaging.
The System3 from Hecus X-ray Systems GmbH (www.hecus.at) is a SWAXS system designed for small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering applications. The non-synchrotron system reportedly provides automated, real-time measurements and efficient speed.
The XGT-5000 EDXRF from HORIBA Jobin Yvon (www.horibajy.com) is an analytical XRF microscope designed to provide fast, elemental characterization with spot sizes down to 10 µm. Featuring the mono-capillary X-ray Guide Tube, which reportedly provides the ultra-narrow beam with high x-ray intensity and excellent beam quality, the XGT-5000 offers a choice of beam sizes available from 1.2 mm to 10 µm, with up to two configurable on one instrument, reportedly allowing for fast switching between micro and macro measurements. Typical applications include forensics (glasses, paints, gun shot residues, fingerprints etc), geology (mineral identification, composition etc), electronics (circuit board analysis, defects, soldering, WEEE/RoHS lead free compliance), pharmaceutical (tablet formulations, foreign object identification etc), materials (concrete/cement, metals, fillers), and biology and medicine (tissue analysis, element accumulation, biomaterials and structure, etc).
QXi Micro XRF analyzers from Innov-X Systems (www.innov-xsys.com) reportedly perform elemental analysis from Chlorine to Uranium, use collimated beams of 13-0.1 mm diameter with laser beam focusing, and are designed for testing small or nonhomogeneous samples. Applications range from the analysis of lead-free solders for electrons, circuit boards, and chip studies to precious metals, bronzes, and alloys. Featuring X-ray tube technology that reportedly eliminates radioactive isotopes, the bench-top instrument incorporates a Silicon-PiN Diode detector, and features an optional xyz stage for measurements during batch operations.
— The Alpha Series of handheld analyzers provide on-the-spot elemental analysis from phosphorous to uranium. Featuring a removable handle that allows it to fit into tight spaces, the Alpha Series analyzers use high Si PiN diode detectors for eliminating radioactive isotopes. Typical applications span material identification for new product quality control and assurance, recycling of metals, and checking levels of impurities.
The Shimadzu µEDXRF from Kratos Analytical (www.kratos.com) features a 50-µm polycapillary focused X-ray beam, coupled with a transmission X-ray detector, which reportedly allows for high-speed mapping of elemental concentration, while concurrently collecting an X-ray optical image of the internal structure of components. This, coupled with the dual-zoom, orthogonal camera, allows for graphic presentation of results using the built-in reporting features of the software.
— Shimadzu EDXRF spectrometers are Si:Li or SDD spectrometers that incorporate primary filters in their standard configuration, and employ FP methods using these filters. The optional collimators and CCD reportedly allow for defect/small area analyses for rapid determination of contaminant particulates, while the large analysis chamber allows for the easy analysis of nonconventional XRF samples without preparation.
—The Shimadzu XRD-7000 is a new Theta-Theta geometry diffractometer designed for powder diffraction, as well as sample analyses applications. The XD-7000 reportedly allows for the direct analyses of large structural components with no need to cut certain parts, thus leaving the local stress/strain environment unchanged.
PANalytical's (www.panalytical.com) Epsilon 5 EDXRF spectrometer is designed for low-level detection of heavy elements. Reportedly able to detect elements in solid, pressed-powder, granule, liquid, thin-film, and loose material samples, the Epsilon 5 is designed to support applications in geology, agriculture, land reclamation, fossil and secondary fuel usage, and catalyst production.
The Vortex 60EX and 90EX silicon multi-cathode detectors from Radiant Detector Technologies (www.radiantdetectors.com) reportedly have an active area of ~50 mm2, a resolution of 130 eV, and a count rate of > 1 Mcps. Designed for XRD/XRD/Synchrotron applications, the detectors can reportedly be cycled with cool down times of < 3 min.
The ZSX Primus II from Rigaku/MSC (www.rigakumsc.com) is a 4kW WDXRF spectrometer with a thin end-window tube (30 µm) and the analytical capability for Be4-U92. The tube-above ZSX Primus II reportedly integrates a newly designed sample-handling system, flexible changeover between helium and vacuum environments, and versatile, modular software. In addition to the components mentioned above, the ZSX Primus II features a mapping system and small sampling capabilities that can be field upgraded according to a user's changing needs.
The SPECTRO iQ from SPECTRO Analytical Instruments (www.spectro.com) is a polarized XRF analyzer for multi-element analysis of solids, powders, and liquids. The analyzer features C-force optics, which reportedly deliver levels of sensitivity for elements like Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S and CL. Specific packages are available for the analysis of additives in oils, cement, slags, and refractories, as well as a "low S" version of the analyzer for the analysis of low sulfur in fuels.
— SPECTRO also will showcase the latest models in its PHOENIX Series of compact, general-purpose analyzers. The PHOENIX Series XRF spectrometers are designed for both qualitative and quantitative non-destructive analyses of liquids, solids, powders, pastes, slurries, films, coatings, and other materials. Features include: optional tunable technology that reportedly permits optimum excitation of selected elements; automatic stabilization that reportedly eliminates drift and ensures smooth operation; a standardization feature to reduce calibration frequency; and optional data logging and networking software.
The NITON XLt 800 SY alloy analyzer features targeted X-ray tube excitation combined with a newly developed Super PiN detector, which reportedly improves minimum detection limits for chromium, copper, nickel, molybdenum, and other trace elements in alloy material. According to the company, these new features now enable the use of portable XRF as part of the Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) — a source of problems in nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants — inspection protocol.
— Thermo's ARL QUANT'X is an EDXRF instrument that utilizes a Peltier cooled Si(Li) detector and Digital Pulse Processing (DPP) technology for multi-element analysis of environmental and industrial applications, such as air particulates, soil contamination, toxic elements in plastic, and forensic science. According to the company, The ARL QUANT'X has been primarily developed to satisfy the analytical needs of laboratories dealing with unpredictable samples, government and military facilities, environmental laboratories monitoring urban and industrial air quality, and steel mills analyzing slags.
— The ARL 9900 is an X-ray system that combines XRF and XRD technologies in one instrument. According to the company, the ARL 9900 has been developed to meet the increasing demand for chemical analysis in the metals industry, to satisfy the process-related analytical requirements in the cement industry, and to provide solutions for quality control in the copper and mining industries.
X-ray Instrumentation Associates' (www.xia.com) line of digital pulse processing electronics now includes the DXP-xMap and the microDXP. Designed for high-speed scanning applications, the DXP-xMAP contains four digital spectrometer channels in a compact PXI/cPCI module. Each channel reportedly offers efficient noise performance, resulting in energy dispersive X-ray measurements over the extended range of 0.2–100 keV.
The microDXP is a complete low-power digital spectrometer that is reported to be the size of a credit card. It incorporates both a digital spectroscopy amplifier and MCA functionality, and is designed for both handheld and tabletop applications.
Rietveld Applications I—Beginner
A better understanding of the Rietveld method as applied to structural characterization and quantitative phase analysis will be emphasized. A brief introduction to the Rietveld method will start the workshop.
Two-dimensional X-ray Diffraction
This workshop covers recent progress in two-dimensional X-ray diffraction in terms of detector technology, geometry, and configuration of the two-dimensional diffractometer and various applications, such as phase ID, texture, stress, crystallinity, combinational screening, and thin film analysis.
Rietveld Applications II—Advanced
A Continuation of Rietveld Applications I—Beginner.
Diffraction Analysis of Stress and Strain
This will introduce engineers to practical stress/strain analysis with diffraction. Basic theory, data acquisition and analysis tips, instrumental and statistical errors, as well as a few case studies will be covered.
Line Profile Analysis by the Whole Powder Pattern Fitting
The workshop will focus on the determination of these properties by Rietveld refinement and other Whole Powder Pattern Fitting (WPPF) programs. A brief theoretical overview will be followed by a practical tutorial with recipes and examples of the determination of crystallite-size distribution and dislocation density in different materials.
Specimen Preparation I
The basics of XRF sample preparation considerations starting with a discussion of the error involved in theoretical and practical instances that sample preparation can overcome or reduce, followed by an overview of sampling techniques and equipment needed for sampling in nature and in the lab will be addressed. This session will highlight the cleaning and polishing procedures needed to extend the life of the crucibles and molds. The effect of thickness, age, and degree of wear will be discussed with respect to length of service and performance.
Specimen Preparation II
A Continuation of Specimen Preparation I
Monte Carlo Techniques in XRF
This workshop will concentrate on the practical aspects of Monte Carlo simulation for XRF applications. This will include how an individual particle or photon is tracked in a sample from emission to detection, how tallies pertinent to XRF predictions are obtained, statistical aspects of the Monte Carlo predictions, geometry considerations, random number generation in computers, cross section accessing, and variance reduction techniques. A review also will be given of the capabilities of the most popular general-purpose codes like MCNP for XRF use.
Quantitative XRF I
Topics will include:
Intended to provide a basic background of the principles of XRF, specifically directed to those new to the field. It will consist of a general overview of the technique, followed by more specific details of particular applications by experts in those applications, to provide an understanding of the use of the principles previously described.
Quantitative XRF II
Topics will include: computed (theoretical) influence coefficients and their mathematical relationship to fundamental parameter models, and a detailed discussion and comparison of selected influence coefficients methods.
Energy Dispersive XRF
The Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Workshop provides a comprehensive review of the basic fundamentals for both the beginner and experienced X-ray spectroscopist. Topics to be covered are instrumentation, including traditional EDXRF spectrometer and the newer polarized X-ray systems; current state of the detectors; and X-ray tubes along with options, such as filters and secondary targets.
In this workshop microCT (lab and synchrotron systems) will be discussed and factors influencing its practical use as a 3D materials imaging modality will be considered. Repeated interrogation of the same sample will be one emphasis in the examples presented, and a second will be analysis "tricks" which have been employed.
There are a myriad of X-ray optics on the market and each one has its own unique capabilities in terms of X-ray spectrometry. This workshop will provide the basic knowledge about X-ray optics, specifically multilayer optics, crystal optics, and polycapillary optics.
This year's Plenary Session is titled "X-ray Imaging." The following are the invited papers to be presented during the plenary session:
BIOMEDICAL X-RAY IMAGING, CURRENT STATUS AND SOME FUTURE CHALLENGES
E.L. Ritman, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine (Rochester, MN)
WHERE ARE WE AFTER THE DECADE-LONG RENAISSANCE IN X-RAY IMAGING?
A. Snigirev, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France)
X-RAY BACKSCATTER IMAGING: PHOTOGRAPHY THROUGH BARRIERS
J. Callerame, American Science & Engineering, Inc. (Billerica, MA)
GEOSCIENCE APPLICATIONS OF SYNCHROTRON X-RAY IMAGING
M.L. Rivers, Department of Geophysical Sciences and Center for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago (Chicago, IL)
will be presented to Brian K. Tanner, University of Durham (Durham, UK) and D. Keith Bowen, Bede Scientific Instruments, Ltd. (Durham, UK). The award will be presented by I.C. Noyan, Columbia University (New York, NY).
This year's Jerome B. Cohen Student Award will be announced at the plenary session and also is scheduled to be presented by Noyan.
Finally, the 2005 Jenkins Award will be presented to Victor E. Buhrke, DXC Chair, by J.V. Gilfrich, Emeritus, SFA, Inc./NRL (Bethesda, MD).
Detectors & Sources
Energy Dispersive Applications
SAXSess—A Tool For Nanostructured Materials
Experimental Study Of X-Ray Energy Spectrum Formed By Planar Waveguideresonator With Specific Element Composition Reflectors
Proper Selection Of Thin X-Transparent Foils For Transmission And Reflection Powder Diffractometry
Measurement Of Strain And Lattice Tilt At The Margins Of Thin Film Islands On Single-Crystal Substrates By Double-Crystal X-Ray Topography
Visual Representations Of Stress Tensors Obtained From X-Ray Diffraction Measurements
Topographic Testing Of Crystals For The Advanced Photon Source Users
3-D Interactive Data Language Pole Figure Visualization
Residual Stress Measurement Of Fiber Texture Materials Near Single Crystal
The Method Of Imaging And 3-D Diagnostics Of Active And Passive Source Of X-Radiation In Biomedical Investigation By The Phenomenon Of Radiation Intensity Correlation
Thin Polymer Film Structure Using Resonant Soft X-Ray Contrast Variation
Microabsorption Or Absorption Contrast In "Real" Materials
X-Ray Analysis Of SiC
Development Of Mobile Type X-Ray Stress Measuring Equipments Using EDXDM
Optical Properties Of Two-Lens System On The Base Of Hard X-Ray Zone Plates
Development Of Focusing Optics For X-Ray Diffraction
High Flux Monochromatic X-Ray Optics For XRD
Optimal Design Of Transmission Grating For X-Ray Talbot Interferometer
Phase Mixture Detection By Fuzzy Clustering Of X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data
Theoretical Interpretation Of The Experiments With High-Resolution Parametric X-Rays
Scattering Enhanced Radiography For Determination Of Size And Shape Of Plastic Zones In Polymers
X-Ray Tomography System, Automation And Remote Access At Beamline 2BM Of The Advanced Photon Source
Value Of Numerical Analysis Of Linear Attenuation Coefficients In Microtomography
Investigation Of Lateral Structured Interfaces With DXRS And SPM
Direct Determination Of Atom Positions In Non-Perfect Crystals With Kinematical X-Ray Standing Waves
Reproduction Of Hologram Image Using A Zone Plate For Hard X-Ray Radiation
Polymorphic Analysis Of Tegafur
Detection Of Polymorphism By Powder X-Ray Diffraction: Interference By Preferred Orientation
X-Ray Diffraction And Thermal Studies On Pentaglycerine And Neopentylglycol Solid Solutions
Characterization Of The Physical Form Of Drug In Pharmaceutical Filmcoated Tablets And Calculation Of The Depth Of Penetration Of X-Rays
Synthesis And Characterization Of p-Anisidine-Oxalate Complexes
High Temperature Studies Of Phase Evolution Of Ba2RCu3O6+x Films Prepared Using The "BaF2 Process"
Crystallography And Crystal Chemistry Of The "Green Phase" (Ba1-xSrx)R2CuO5 (R=Lanthanides And Y)
Determination Of Cation Distributions In Mn3O4 By Anomalous X-Ray Powder Diffraction
Phase Stabilities Of Zr2Fe And Zr3Fe Hydrides
Microstrain And Domain Size Measurements Of V-0.5 At. %C Hydrides
Thermal Lattice Expansion In Epitaxial SrTiO3(100) On Si(100)
Temperature Dependence Of Residual Stress In Titanium Nitride Coatings On Haynes 188 Superalloy
Character Of The High-Temperature Structural Changes In CsD2PO4 And RbD2PO4
Residual Stress Distribution In Gta Spot Welded Ti6AlV4V Disks
Comparison Of Texture In Copper And Aluminum Thin Films Determined By XRD And EBSD
Depth Profile Study Of The Composition Of Urinary Stones And Crystals From Canines And Felines Using X-Ray Diffraction
Residual Stress Measurement Of Cementite Phase In Plastically Deformed Carbon Steels
Identification Of Painting Materials Used For Mural Paintings By Image Analysis And XRF
Combining Micro X-Ray Fluorescence And Infrared Imaging Spectroscopies For The Understanding Of Complex Chemical Systems
X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Of Uranium Aluminum Alloys
Characterizing Semiconductor Thin Films With A Confocal Micro X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer
Researches On Neurodegeneration Using Techniques Based On Synchrotron Radiation
Parameter Studies For An Optimized XRF-Determination Of Pb In Bone
TXRF Analysis Of Low Z Elements In Environmental Samples
Ultratrace Element Analysis With Sr-TXRF At Beamline L For Aerosol And Al-Oxide Samples
Characterisation Of Arsenic Ultra Shallow Junctions By Grazing Incidence Fluorescence EXFAS
Application Of The TXRF Method For The Elemental Analysis Of The Cerebrospinal Fluid And Serum In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Of Microelectromechanical Systems
Determination Of The Element Distribution In Sauropod Bones By Micro-XRF
Broadband X-Ray Radiography Applied To Multiphase Flow Measurements
XRF Combined With NEXAFS Analysis In The Soft X-Ray Range: A Contribution To The Speciation Of Iron In Minerals At The L3,2 Edges
Characterisation Of Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes For X-Ray Spectrometry
Automated Nanoliter Dried Spot Sample Preparation Method For X-Ray Fluorescence Liquid Sample Analysis
Electric Field Influence On Emission Of Characteristic X-Ray From Al2O3 Targets Bombarded With Slow Xe+ Ions
Surface Monitor: A New Instrument For In Situ XRD-XRF And Optical Measurement
Lobster Eye Optics For Collecting Radiation Of A Laser-Plasma Soft X-Ray Source Based On A Gas Puff Target
X-Ray Imaging Of An Elongated Gas Puff Target To Be Used In X-Ray Laser Experiments
Cross Sections Of X-Ray Resonant Raman Scattering (RRS) On Nickel For Polarized And Unpolarized Radiation
X-Ray Projection And Microbeam Using An X-Ray Wave Guide Resonator
Quantitative Investigation Of The Enhancement Of X-Ray Fluorescence Of Light Elements By Photoelectron Secondary Excitation
Fundamental Parameter Programs: Algorithms For The Description Of K-, L- And M Spectra Of X-Ray Tubes
Materials Identification On The Base Of Discrete X-Ray Spectra
Monte-Carlo Modeling Of Silicon X-Ray Detectors
Development Of Plastic Certified Reference Materials For XRF Analysis
Quantifying Peptide-Metal Binding On Bead Based Libraries