Ep. 23: Color My World: The Complexities of Color Measurements


Welcome to “Analytically Speaking,” the podcast from LCGC International and Spectroscopy.

Here in Episode #23, podcast host Dr. Jerry Workman speaks with Dr. Art Springsteen and Dr. David Wyble about the challenges of creating color standards and making color measurements using optical spectroscopy.

References and Further Reading


“Color My World: The Complexities of Color Measurements”

(1) Verrill, J. F.; Anne Compton, J.; Malkin, F. Thermochromism of Ceramic Color Standards. Appl. Opt.1986, 25, (18), 3011–3011. DOI: 10.1364/AO.25.003011

(2) Robertson, A. R. Diagnostic Performance Evaluation of Spectrophotometers. Anal. Spectrosc. Libr. Volume 2, 1987, 277–286. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-42880-6.50018-0

(3) Berns, R. S. Billmeyer and Saltzman's Principles of Color Technology, 4th Edition; Wiley, 2019. https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Billmeyer+and+Saltzman's+Principles+of+Color+Technology,+4th+Edition-p-9781119366683 (accessed 2024-02-20).

(4) Hunt, R. W. G.; Pointer, M. R. Measuring Colour, 4th Edition; Wiley, 2011. https://www.wiley.com/en-us/Measuring+Colour%2C+4th+Edition-p-9781119975373 (accessed 2024-02-20).

(5) Hunter, R. S.; Harold, R. W. The Measurement of Appearance; Wiley, 1987. https://www.wiley.com/en-ae/The+Measurement+of+Appearance,+2nd+Edition-p-9780471830061 (accessed 2024-02-20).

(6) Publication CIE #46 (CIE 046-1979) - A Review of Publications on Properties and Reflection Values of Material Reflection Standards, USNC-CIE National Institute of Standards and Technology, Room B306//220 Gaithersburg, MD 20899. https://cie.co.at/publications/review-publications-properties-and-reflection-values-material-reflection-standards (accessed 2024-02-09).

(7) Grum, F. and Saltzman, M. A New White Standard of Reflectance, Proceedings of the 18th. Session of CIE, London,1975, Publication CIE No. 36, Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1976, pp. 91–98

(8) Weidner, V. R.; Hsia, J. J. Reflection Properties of Pressed Polytetrafluorethylene Powder. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1981, 71 (7), 856–861. DOI:10.1364/JOSA.71.000856

(9) Weidner, V. R.; Hsia, J. J.; Adams, B. Laboratory Intercomparison of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene Powder Reflectance Standards. Appl. Opt. 1985 (14), 24, 2225–2230. DOI: 10.1364/AO.24.002225

(10) Publication CIE No. 44 (CIE 044-1979), Absolute Method for Reflectance Measurements, USNC-CIE, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Room B306//220 Gaithersburg, MD 20899. https://cie.co.at/publications/absolute-methods-reflection-measurements (accessed 2024-02-09).

(11) Springsteen, A. W.; Ricker, T. M.; Leland, J. E. Guide to Reflectance Materials and Coatings, Labsphere Technical Guide, North Sutton, NH 1993.

(12) Weidner, V. R. Grey Scale of Diffuse Reflectance for the 250-2500 nm Wavelength Range. Appl. Opt. 1986, 25 (8), 1265–1266. DOI:10.1364/AO.25.001265

(13) Publication CIE No. 44 (CIE 038-1977) - Radiometric and Photometric Characterization of Materials and their Measurement, USNC-CIENational Institute of Standards and Technology, Room B306//220 Gaithersburg, MD 20899. https://cie.co.at/publications/radiometric-and-photometric-characteristics-materials-and-their-measurement (accessed 2024-02-09).

(14) Stray Light Cutoff Filters-Specified Wavelength Method. Starna Scientific Ltd. www.starnacells.com Oct. 2019 V1. https://www.starna.com/uv-stray/astm-387-specified-wavelength-method (accessed 2024-02-09).

(15) Certified Reference Materials for Spectroscopy, Published by Starna Cells Ltd. 2021 (transmittance and stray light standards). www.starnacells.com. https://www.starnacells.com/d_download/CRM-Cat-2021.pdf (accessed 2024-02-09).

(16) Budde, W. Standards of Reflectance. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 1959, 50 (3) 217–220. DOI: 10.1364/JOSA.50.000217

(17) Erb, W. Requirements for Reflectance Standards and Measurement of their Reflection Values. Appl. Opt. 1975, 14 (2), 493–499. DOI: 10.1364/AO.14.000493

(18) Weidner, V. R.;Hsia, J. J.; Eckerle, K. L. Exploratory Research in Reflectance and Fluorescence at the National Bureau of Standards. Optics News 1986, 12 (11), 18–20. DOI: 10.1364/ON.12.11.000018

(19) Springsteen, A. W. Standards for Reflectance Measurements, Selection and Use: A Primer (Part 1). Spectroscopy 2000, 15 (5), 21–27.

(20) Springsteen, A. W. Standards for Reflectance Measurements, Selection and Use: A Primer (Part 2) Spectroscopy 2000, 15 (6) 22–25.

(21) Springsteen, A. W.; Ricker, T. M. Standards for the Measurement of Diffuse Reflectance. Part 1. NIR News 1996, 7 (4), 6–9. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1255/nirn.371 (accessed 2024-02-09).

(22) Springsteen, A. W.; Ricker, T. M. Standards for the Measurement of Diffuse Reflectance. Part 2. NIR News 1996, 7 (5) DOI: 10.1255/nirn.382 (accessed 2024-02-09).

(23) Springsteen, A. W. Standards for the Measurement of Diffuse Reflectance- an Overview of Available Materials and Measurement Laboratories. Anal. Chim. Acta 1999, 380, 379–390. DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2670(98)00576-5

(24) van Nijnatten, P. A. Calibration of Neutral Density Glass Filters to Produce Transmittance Standards. Proceedings, 5th ESG Conference "Glass Science and Technology for the 21st. Century. Prague June 21-24 (1999). https://omtsolutions.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/1999-proc-EGC-calibration-of-neutal-density-glass-filters-1.pdf (accessed 2024-02-09).

(25) Workman Jr, J.; Springsteen, A. (Eds.) Applied spectroscopy: a compact reference for practitioners. (Academic Press, Boston, 1998), pp. 193, 247. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-764070-9.X5000-8

(26) Workman Jr, J. (Ed.) The Concise Handbook Of Analytical Spectroscopy, Theory, Applications, And Reference Materials (In 5 Volumes). (World Scientific, 2016). https://doi.org/10.1142/8800

More about our hosts:

Dwight Stoll, PhD:

Dwight R. Stoll is a professor of chemistry at Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter, Minnesota. He received his PhD from the University of Minnesota, under Professor Peter Carr, working on the development of fast, comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). Stoll’s current primary research focus is on the development of 2D-LC for both targeted and untargeted analyses. Active research projects in his laboratory touch on most aspects of multidimensional separation methodologies, including optimization strategies, characterization of selectivity in reversed-phase LC, instrument development, and applications in biopharmaceutical analysis. Stoll is the author or co-author of more than 80 peer-reviewed publications and six book chapters and has instructed numerous short courses in 2D-LC. In 2011 he was the recipient of LCGC’s Emerging Leader in Chromatography Award. In 2017 he received the Georges Guiochon Faculty Fellowship, and was recognized with an Agilent Technologies Thought Leader Award. He is also a member of LCGC’s editorial advisory board and is the editor of the “LC Troubleshooting” column in LCGC.

Jerome Workman, Jr., PhD:

Jerome (Jerry) J. Workman, Jr. is the Senior Technical Editor for LCGC and Spectroscopy. He has held positions as CTO, executive VP, senior research fellow, director, and senior scientist at companies of all sizes, from start-ups to world-leading corporations. He has been an adjunct faculty member of four universities and advised multiple graduate students. He has more than 75 U.S. and international patent applications and 30 issued U.S. and international patents and multiple trade secrets, as well as 500+ technical publications, and 20 reference book volumes on a broad range of spectroscopy and data processing techniques. He has received multiple awards from scientific societies, and has taught annual courses in spectroscopy, chemometrics, and statistics for the AOAC, ACS, ISA, FACSS, and at several universities and corporations. He is a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemists (FAIC), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Royal Society of Chemistry in the UK (FRSC, CChem, CSci). Jerry holds B.A and M.A degrees from Saint Mary's University of Minnesota, and a PhD degree from Columbia Pacific University working in near-infrared spectroscopy. He is an alumnus of both Columbia University Business School and the MIT Sloan School of Management.

About the Analytically Speaking Podcast:

Analytically Speaking, the podcast from LCGC and Spectroscopy, addresses important issues in separation science and analytical spectroscopy. Topics include new analytical techniques, methods, and approaches; the latest trends; advances in instrument and software technology; practical solutions for specific applications; recent papers in the scientific literature and their applicability; challenges and solutions for data analysis and interpretation; analytical chemistry theory and fundamentals (from advanced research to tutorials and troubleshooting); and more. Our regular hosts are Dwight Stoll, PhD, a professor of chemistry at Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter, Minnesota, and Jerry Workman, PhD, a spectroscopist, noted author, and currently the Senior Technical Editor of Spectroscopy and LCGC. Dwight covers separation science and Jerry addresses spectroscopy related topics.

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