Author | Hesham Ghobarah

Hesham Ghobarah is with Applied Biosystems/MDS SCIEX.

Articles

Increasing Productivity of ADME Studies Using Accurate Mass Technology

October 01, 2010

Special Issues

Article

A new time-of-flight mass spectrometer was evaluated for performing simultaneous metabolic stability measurement and metabolite identification with ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography. Six representative compounds (clomipramine, diclofenac, imipramine, haloperidol, verapamil, and midazolam) were incubated in rat liver microsomes at a more physiologically relevant substrate concentration (1 ?M). High-resolution full-scan and product-ion spectra were acquired in a single injection using generic methodology. Quantitative clearance of the parent was measured using the full-scan data. Major metabolites were identified using the accurate mass product ion spectra. High scanning speed allowed for a sufficient number of data points to be collected across the chromatographic peak for quantitative analysis. Sensitivity was sufficient for obtaining meaningful kinetics with a 1 ?M initial substrate concentration.

Metabolite Profiling Applications in Early Drug Discovery

October 09, 2009

Special Issues

Article

Metabolite profiling in drug discovery can contribute significantly at the lead optimization stage in two main application areas. The first is the identification of major metabolites, which provides medicinal chemists with information on the metabolic "soft spots." These soft spots are locations on the molecule particularly susceptible to metabolic modification, which can contribute to high pharmacokinetic clearance. This information then can be used to optimize the structure of a lead compound or chemical series to slow the rate of metabolism and therefore reduce hepatic clearance. This improves the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of the compound, such as bioavailability, exposure (as measured by area under the curve), and half-life. Through iterative optimization of the structure and timely generation of metabolism data following each structural modification, pharmacokinetic properties can be improved while maintaining activity against the therapeutic target.

Challenges in Small-Molecule Quantitation by Mass Spectrometry

November 01, 2007

Special Issues

Article

Drug discovery scientists are continually striving to improve productivity and efficiency in their workflows. From early discovery to clinical development, existing workflow bottlenecks represent an opportunity to develop solutions to speed the process and improve productivity. The key requirements for quantitative analysis are precision, accuracy, and linear dynamic range. With any quantitative instrument, the hope is that it will be applicable to a vast range of coumpounds, ruggest, and fast. New mass spectrometry (MS) technologies are being developed that meet these criteria and permit high throughput while enabling its application to areas in which speed limitations previously curtailed its practicality. In particular, in the area of ADME profiling, new MS platforms are becoming available that increase the throughput by at least 25-fold, by combining the speed of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) with the specificity of triple-quadrupole MS. This is bound to greatly accelerate the ADME..

High Throughput Metabolic Stability Screening by MALDI Triple Quadrupole Analysis

September 01, 2007

Application Notebook

Article

Applied Biosystems/MDS SCIEX