February 1st 2017
This article reviews the state-of-the-art of far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectroscopy of solid and liquid phases. FUV spectroscopy is rich in information about electronic structure and transitions of a molecule, but this region has been employed to investigate mainly for the electronic states and structure of gas molecules because the absorptivity is very high in the FUV region. To overcome this difﬁculty we have developed a totally new FUV spectrometer based on the attenuated total reﬂection (ATR) technique. ATR-FUV spectroscopy has paved a new avenue for condensed matter FUV spectroscopy. This article demonstrates that FUV holds considerable promise not only in basic science such as studies of electronic structure of molecules, hydrogen bonding, hydration, and adsorption of water and aqueous solutions, but also practical applications, such as on-line analysis, geochemical and environmental analyis, semiconductor research and surface analysis.