Application Notebook-02-01-2012

Application Notebook

The Orbis Micro-XRF Analyzer Series

February 01, 2012

Atomic Spectroscopy

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Building on more than 10 years of Micro-XRF experience, the Orbis spectrometer yields a system with excellent Micro-XRF capability while setting a new standard in analytical flexibility. The Orbis incorporates a unique motorized turret integrating video and X-ray optics allowing coaxial sample view and X-ray analysis. The turret can accommodate two additional collimators along with the X-ray optic for a total of three X-ray beam sizes to expand the Orbis analytical capabilities beyond traditional Micro-XRF analysis. Primary beam filters can be used with all spot sizes available on the turret to allow true XRF analytical capabilities in a micro-spot analysis. The working distance is increased to allow analysis over rougher sample topography without sacrificing signal intensity.

Benchtop WDXRF for Cement Analysis

February 01, 2012

Atomic Spectroscopy

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Cement is one of the most important materials in the construction industry. Traditionally, WDXRF spectrometers used in cement plants have been large, floor-standing models with substantial installation requirements and ownership expenses. This application note demonstrates the capabilities of the Rigaku Supermini - a new low-cost, benchtop wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer - for the rapid quantitative elemental analysis of cement raw meal.

Revisiting IR Transmission Sampling of Polymers

February 01, 2012

Molecular Spectroscopy

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Infrared (IR) sampling techniques of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and transmission for polymer analysis are compared and contrasted. Using a real-world application, IR analysis of silane-grafted linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) pellets is presented to illustrate the benefit of IR film transmission sampling.

Automated Circular Dichroism: A Powerful Tool for the Optimization of Protein Formulation

February 01, 2012

Molecular Spectroscopy

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The polyclonal IgG in this study is more thermally stable at neutral pH, (4.8 to 7.8) than it is at lower pH. The loss of thermal stability at lower pH is concomitant with a change in the pre-transition folded structure of the protein.

Chemometric Modeling of Methanol in Tertiary Mixtures Using a High Resolution Portable Raman Spectrometer

February 01, 2012

Molecular Spectroscopy

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Raman is a well-developed and implemented qualitative spectroscopic tool for molecular identification, but in recent years with the development of high resolution portable Raman spectrometers and cutting edge chemometric modeling, software has now enabled the use of Raman for highly precise quantitative measurements of mixtures and reactions.

Wire Grid Polarizer – 10% Improvement in PBS Efficiency

February 01, 2012

General

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This technical brief compares imaging needs and how Moxtek is improving its products. It explains how competing technologies in LCoS projectors compare in terms of brightness, performance, durability and reliability.

Handheld FTIR Analysis for the Conservation and Restoration of Fine Art and Historical Objects

February 01, 2012

Molecular Spectroscopy

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FTIR spectroscopy has long been used for the analysis of art and historical objects in support of efforts to conserve, restore, and validate authenticity of these rare objects. The value of the technique for this application lies in its inherent sensitivity, specificity, and non-destructive capabilities.

Determination of Low Concentration Methanol in Alcohol by an Affordable High Sensitivity Raman Instrument

February 01, 2012

Molecular Spectroscopy

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Low concentration natural methanol exists in most alcoholic beverages and usually causes no immediate health threat. Nevertheless, it is possible to have natural occurring methanol in beverages with concentration as high as 18 g/L of ethanol; or equivalent to 0.72% methanol in 40% ethanol, in alcohol (1). Current EU regulation limits naturally occurring methanol to below 10 g/L of ethanol; or equivalent to 0.4% methanol in 40% ethanol.

Improved Principal Component Discrimination of Commercial Inks Using Surface-Enhanced Resonant Raman Scattering

February 01, 2012

Also

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In the three decades since its discovery, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been used in numerous applications to increase signal intensity in Raman scattering experiments. The current study provides insight into the more practical aspects of enhanced Raman sampling for laboratory users. We describe how the signal enhancement from a surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering (SERRS) process improves the ability to discriminate between ink samples using principal component clustering.

Cost-Effective Analysis of Major, Minor, and Trace Elements in Foodstuffs Usint the 4100 MP-AES

February 01, 2012

Atomic Spectroscopy

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Whether the goal is food safety, ensuring quality, or establishing provenance, measuring the trace element content of foods and beverages that we all consume is of paramount importance. While some elements are essential for our well being at low concentrations, others like lead and chromium are highly toxic and more still are being linked to viral, neurological, and other diseases. Food scares related to contamination or poor quality not only constitute a health risk, they also undermine consumer confidence. This can lead to lost earnings through reduced sales and loss of credibility through adverse publicity.

FTIR Sampling of Eye Drops Using Multiple Reflection Diamond ATR

February 01, 2012

Molecular Spectroscopy

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Multiple reflection ATR is ideal for detecting miniscule levels of components in solutions, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Most multiple ATR accessories use ATR crystals which are susceptible to wear and damage. Diamond, although an excellent choice due to its refractive index, high degree of chemical inertness, and low coefficient of friction, is generally not used because of its expense and its strong lattice bands around 2200 cm-1.

Analysis of Wear Metals and Additive Package Elements in New and Used Oil Using the Optima 8300 ICP-OES with Flat Plate Plasma Technology

February 01, 2012

Atomic Spectroscopy

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The Optima 8x00 ICP-OES series utilizes the new Flat Plate plasma technology that replaces the traditional helical coil design used since the inception of the inductively coupled plasma. The Flat Plate plasma technology, as seen in Figure 1, utilizes two flat induction plates to produce a plasma that is compact, dense, and robust. This plasma utilizes about half the argon required by previous helical coil designs while still delivering exceptional analytical performance.

3D Confocal Raman Imaging in Semiconductor Research

February 01, 2012

Molecular Spectroscopy

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The exacting standards of quality and reliability of structured substrates in the semiconductor industry require in-depth knowledge concerning the interior structure of the devices. In this application note we present results of 3D confocal Raman imaging measurements for such characterizations.

IC–ICP–MS Speciation Analysis of As in Apple Juice

February 01, 2012

Atomic Spectroscopy

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In this study, apple juice samples are analyzed by IC–ICP–MS to determine the concentration of six arsenic species: the two inorganic, and highly toxic, species (As (V) and As [III]) and four organic species (arsenobetaine [AsB], arsenocholine [AsC], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMA]).

Microwave Digestion of Pharmaceutical Finished Products and Ingredients for Upcoming USP Method 233

February 01, 2012

Atomic Spectroscopy

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Current USP Method 231 "Heavy Metals" was introduced in 1905 for determining heavy metal impurities in pharmaceutical drug products. The procedures of the method have several limitations, which produce results that are nondiscriminatory, difficult to reproduce, and qualitative, or at best, semi-quantitative.

Vol 27 No 2 Spectroscopy February 2012 Application Note PDF

February 01, 2012

Issue PDF

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Click the title above to open the Spectroscopy February 2012 Application Note, Vol 27 No 2, in an interactive PDF format.