Portable 785 nm and 1064 nm excitation wavelength dispersive Raman instruments have proven their worth in materials identification, especially for forensics, pharmaceutical raw materials inspection, and first responders.
In the agri-food sector it is important to not only study the soil composition and use of fertilizers, but also the uptake of nutrients and potentially toxic elements within the plants and crops themselves.
Elemental ratio determinations in foraminiferal calcite require the measurement of trace levels of Na, Mg, Sr, and ultra-trace levels of Li, B, Ba, Cd, Mn, U in a calcium rich matrix and ratioed to calcium.
Measuring the transmission of diffuse samples such as paper or filled polymer films requires an integrating sphere to obtain accurate transmission values and useful chemical information, because the IR light is scattered as it passes through the sample. An integrating sphere serves as a collection device for the scattered light.
Strict production requirements, consumer demand, and at times poor harvests, result in high prices and can limit the supply of EVOO. Consequently, EVOO is susceptible to economically motivated adulteration with less expensive oils and claims of authenticity continue to be a concern.
Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are critical analytical techniques in the pharmaceutical industry, used for the structural elucidation and characterization of organic materials such as new drug candidates, impurities, metabolites, and excipients.
Spectroscopic techniques have a long history as quantitative methods for on-line and at-line use in a wide range of industries, where, in many cases, they are more accurate than the reference methods. These processes are typically continuous, but time-depending processes such as batch processes are widely used in many industries.